Marsion: Perbedaan revisi

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== History ==
What we know of Marcion comes mostly through his detractors, who are in substantial agreement. The first mention of Marcion was in [[Justin Martyr]]'s ''Apologia'' (I 26), written mid-century, which finds Marcion yet alive and his followers dispersed among many nations. Marcion was possibly the wealthy son of the bishop of [[Sinope]] (modern [[Sinop|Sinop, Turkey]]), in [[Pontus]] province. However, Marcion was supposedly excommunicated from the church for seducing a virgin by his own father, casting him as a Catholic degenerate. With these allegations considered, it seems more likely that this was folklore spread by the Catholic church in order to portray Marcion in a negative light, with respects to the potential damage he and his ideas presented to the Catholic church. He himself is described as ''nautes, nauclerus'', a ship owner, by [[Rhodon]] and [[Tertullian]], who wrote about a generation after Marcion's death [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09645c.htm]. The hostile confrontation of Marcion described in ''Adversus haereses'' of [[Polycarp]]'s pupil [[Irenaeus]] was expanded in a more detailed and more furious polemic written by [[Tertullian]], ''Adversus Marcionem'' [http://www.tertullian.org/articles/evans_marc/evans_marc_01title_preface.htm]. [[Hippolytus (writer)|Hippolytus]] says he was the son of a bishop who excommunicated him on grounds of immorality, a story that is difficult to believe given other statements that he was a very moral man and the strong tendency to accuse heretics of immorality. He eventually found his way to Rome about 142–3142–3, for Tertullian, writing about 208, dates the beginning of Marcion's teachings 115 years after the [[Crucifixion]], which Tertullian placed in AD 26–2726–27 (''Adversus Marcionem'', xix).
 
In the next few years after his arrival in Rome, he worked out his theological system, based on his interpretation of the message of Jesus, and attracted a large following. When conflicts with the bishops of Rome arose, Marcion began to organize his followers into a separate community. He was [[excommunication|excommunicated]] by the [[Church of Rome]] around [[144]] (115 years and 6 months from the [[Chronology of Jesus' birth and death|crucifixion of Jesus]] according to the ''Catholic Encyclopedia''), which returned his previous donation of 200,000 [[sesterces]], a very large sum, considering records from [[Pompeii]] show a slave being sold at auction for 6252 sesterces; the ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' attributes these funds possibly to [[Simony|purchase the bishopric of Rome]] after [[Pope Hyginus]] died about in 143 and before [[Pope Pius I|Pius I]] was appointed successor. Tertullian claimed [[Valentinius]] was a candidate at that same time.
From then on, he apparently used Rome as a base of operations, devoting his gift for organization and considerable wealth to the propagation of his teachings and the establishment of compact communities throughout the [[Roman Empire]], making converts of every age, rank and background. He created a strong ecclesiastical organization, parallel to that of the Church of Rome, with himself as bishop.
 
Tertullian and Irenaeus report that Marcion attempted to use his money to influence the Church to adopt his teaching, which they rejected. He also came face to face at Rome with [[Polycarp]], who claimed to have known John (either [[John the Apostle]] or [[John the Presbyter]]) personally—personally— Polycarp called him "the first born of Satan." His numerous critics included the aforementioned, along with [[Ephrem the Syrian|Ephraim of Syria]], [[Dionysius of Corinth]], [[Theophilus of Antioch]], [[Philip of Gortyna]], [[Hippolytus (writer)|Hippolytus]] and [[Rhodo]] in Rome, [[Bardesanes]] at Edessa, [[Clement of Alexandria]], and [[Origen]]. Such a battery of opponents suggests a very real and widespread teaching running counter to what would later be called Catholic. Nevertheless, "not even Tertullian can find any strictures to pass on the morals of Marcion or his adherents" (Evans 1972 p. xiv).
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== Referensi ==
*Blackman, E.C. ''Marcion and His Influence'' 2004 ISBN 1-59244-731-7
*Clabeaux, John James. ''The Lost Edition of the Letters of Paul: A Reassessment of the Text of Pauline Corpus Attested by Marcion (Catholic Biblical Quarterly Monograph Series No. 21)'' 1989 ISBN 0-915170-20-5
*Dahl, Nils Alstrup. "The Origin of the Earliest Prologues to the Pauline Letters", ''Semeia'' 12 (1978), 233-277
*[[Epiphanius of Salamis]]. ''The Panarion of Epiphanius of Salamis, Book 1 (Sects 1-46)'' Frank Williams translator, 1987 ISBN 90-04-07926-2
*Grant, Robert M. ''Marcion and the Critical Method'' Peter Richardson & John Collidge Hurd, eds., From Jesus to Paul. Studies in Honour of Francis Wright Beare. Waterloo, ON, 1984. pp.207-215.
*[[Adolf von Harnack|Harnack, Adolf von]] 1961. ''History of Dogma'' (Neil Buchanan, translating Harnack's ''Dogmengeschichte'' 1900), vol I, pp 267 – 313, vol II, pp 1 – 19
*[[Adolf von Harnack|Harnack, Adolf von]]. ''Marcion: The Gospel of the Alien God'' translation 1990 ISBN 0-939464-16-0
*Hoffmann, R. Joseph ''Marcion, on the Restitution of Christianity: An Essay on the Development of Radical Paulist Theology in the Second Century'' 1984 ISBN 0-89130-638-2
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