Daftar merah IUCN: Perbedaan revisi

11 bita dihapus ,  3 tahun yang lalu
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'''Daftar merah IUCN''' ({{lang-en|IUCN Red List}}, atau dikenal juga dengan ''Red Data List'') pertama kali digagas pada tahun 1964 untuk menetapkan standar daftar spesies, dan upaya penilaian konservasinya<ref name=iucn-redlist-b>IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/species/our_work/the_iucn_red_list Diakses 7 Februari 2014</ref>. IUCN Red List bertujuan memberi informasi, dan analisis mengenai status, tren, dan ancaman terhadap spesies untuk memberitahukan, dan mempercepat tindakan dalam upaya konservasi keanekaragaman hayati<ref name=iucn-redlist-a>The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Red List Overview. http://www.iucnredlist.org/about/red-list-overview Diakses 7 Februari 2014</ref>.
== Kriteria dan kriterium ==
=== Kriteria ===
# '''Kriteria A, C dan D''': Populasi, dan ukuran populasi <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- The term 'population' is used in a specific sense in the Red List Criteria that is different to its common biological usage. Population is here defined as the total number of individuals of the taxon. For functional reasons, primarily owing to differences between life forms, population size is measured as numbers of mature individuals only. In the case of taxa obligately dependent on other taxa for all or part of their life cycles, biologically appropriate values for the host taxon should be used. -->
# '''Kriteria B dan C''': Subpopulasi <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan Subpopulations are defined as geographically or otherwise distinct groups in the population between which there is little demographic or genetic exchange (typically one successful migrant individual or gamete per year or less). -->
# '''Kriteria A, B, C, dan D''': Jumlah individu dewasa <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- The number of mature individuals is the number of individuals known, estimated or inferred to be capable of reproduction. When estimating this quantity, the following points should be borne in mind:
Mature individuals that will never produce new recruits should not be counted (e.g. densities are too low for fertilization).
Re-introduced individuals must have produced viable offspring before they are counted as mature individuals.
# '''Kriteria A, C dan E''': Keturunan <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- Generation length is the average age of parents of the current cohort (i.e. newborn individuals in the population). Generation length therefore reflects the turnover rate of breeding individuals in a population. Generation length is greater than the age at first breeding and less than the age of the oldest breeding individual, except in taxa that breed only once. Where generation length varies under threat, the more natural, i.e. pre-disturbance, generation length should be used. -->
# '''Kriteria B dan C''': Penurunan terus-menerus <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!--A continuing decline is a recent, current or projected future decline (which may be smooth, irregular or sporadic) which is liable to continue unless remedial measures are taken. Fluctuations will not normally count as continuing declines, but an observed decline should not be considered as a fluctuation unless there is evidence for this. -->
# '''Kriteria B dan C''': Fluktuasi ekstrem <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!--Extreme fluctuations can be said to occur in a number of taxa when population size or distribution area varies widely, rapidly and frequently, typically with a variation greater than one order of magnitude (i.e. a tenfold increase or decrease). -->
# '''Kriteria A dan B''': Taraf kejadian <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- Extent of occurrence is defined as the area contained within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary which can be drawn to encompass all the known, inferred or projected sites of present occurrence of a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy (see Figure 2). This measure may exclude discontinuities or disjunctions within the overall distributions of taxa (e.g. large areas of obviously unsuitable habitat) (but see 'area of occupancy', point 10 below). Extent of occurrence can often be measured by a minimum convex polygon (the smallest polygon in which no internal angle exceeds 180 degrees and which contains all the sites of occurrence). -->
# '''Kriteria A, B dan D''': Luas hunian <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!--Area of occupancy is defined as the area within its 'extent of occurrence' (see point 9 above) which is occupied by a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy. The measure reflects the fact that a taxon will not usually occur throughout the area of its extent of occurrence, which may contain unsuitable or unoccupied habitats. In some cases (e.g. irreplaceable colonial nesting sites, crucial feeding sites for migratory taxa) the area of occupancy is the smallest area essential at any stage to the survival of existing populations of a taxon. The size of the area of occupancy will be a function of the scale at which it is measured, and should be at a scale appropriate to relevant biological aspects of the taxon, the nature of threats and the available data (see point 7 in the Preamble). To avoid inconsistencies and bias in assessments caused by estimating area of occupancy at different scales, it may be necessary to standardize estimates by applying a scale-correction factor. It is difficult to give strict guidance on how standardization should be done because different types of taxa have different scale-area relationships. -->
# '''Kriteria B dan D''': Wilayah <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- The term 'location' defines a geographically or ecologically distinct area in which a single threatening event can rapidly affect all individuals of the taxon present. The size of the location depends on the area covered by the threatening event and may include part of one or many subpopulations. Where a taxon is affected by more than one threatening event, location should be defined by considering the most serious plausible threat. -->
=== Kriterium ===
# '''Kriterium A''': Penurunan <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- A reduction is a decline in the number of mature individuals of at least the amount (%) stated under the criterion over the time period (years) specified, although the decline need not be continuing. A reduction should not be interpreted as part of a fluctuation unless there is good evidence for this. The downward phase of a fluctuation will not normally count as a reduction. -->
# '''Kriterium B''': Terfragmentasi parah <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- The phrase 'severely fragmented' refers to the situation in which increased extinction risk to the taxon results from the fact that most of its individuals are found in small and relatively isolated subpopulations (in certain circumstances this may be inferred from habitat information). These small subpopulations may go extinct, with a reduced probability of recolonization. -->
# '''Kriterium E''': Analisis kuantitatif <br /> <!-- Tolong Terjemahkan --> <!-- A quantitative analysis is defined here as any form of analysis which estimates the extinction probability of a taxon based on known life history, habitat requirements, threats and any specified management options. Population viability analysis (PVA) is one such technique. Quantitative analyses should make full use of all relevant available data. In a situation in which there is limited information, such data as are available can be used to provide an estimate of extinction risk (for instance, estimating the impact of stochastic events on habitat). In presenting the results of quantitative analyses, the assumptions (which must be appropriate and defensible), the data used and the uncertainty in the data or quantitative model must be documented. -->
== Kategori ==
=== Punah ===
[[FileBerkas:Panthera tigris sondaica 01.jpg|thumb| [[Harimau jawa]] (''Panthera tigris sondaica'') yang dipercaya telah punah sejak pertengahan 1970-an <ref name=IUCN2012>{{IUCN|id=41681 |title='' Panthera tigris ssp. sondaica '' |assessors=Jackson, P. & Nowell, K. |version=3.1 |year=2008 |accessdate=7 Februari 2014}}</ref>]]
Suatu takson dinyatakan "punah" ([[Bahasa Inggris]]: '''''extinct''''') jika tidak ada keraguan lagi bahwa individu terakhir telah mati setelah survei penuh gagal merekam satu individu yang masih hidup. Survei penuh dilakukan di [[habitat]]nya yang diketahui, dan diharapkan, pada waktu yang tepat ([[diurnal]], musiman, tahunan) di semua riwayat wilayahnya, berdasarkan siklus hidup, dan bentuk kehidupan takson tersebut<ref name=iucn>The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2001) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/categories-and-criteria/2001-categories-criteria Diakses 7 Februari 2014</ref>.