Ketef Hinnom: Perbedaan revisi

151 bita dihapus ,  4 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
Gulungan-gulungan itu ditemukan pada tahun 1979 dalam Kamar 25 dari Gua 24 di Ketef Hinnom, pada waktu ekskavasi oleh tim di bawah pimpinan [[:en:Gabriel Barkay|Gabriel Barkay]], yang pada waktu itu menjabat sebagai profesor arkeologi di [[:en:Tel Aviv University|Tel Aviv University]].<ref>Barkay, Gabriel, et al., [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=1094-2076%28200312%2966%3A4%3C162%3ATCOKHU%3E2.0.CO%3B2-L&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage "The Challenges of Ketef Hinnom: Using Advanced Technologies to Recover the Earliest Biblical Texts and their Context]," ''Near Eastern Archaeology'', 66/4 (2003): 162-171. The article includes an isometric drawing of the chamber where the find was made.</ref> Situs itu nampaknya steril secara arkeologi, karena makam itu sudah pernah menjadi tempat penyimpanan senapan selama periode [[Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah]], tetapi suatu penemuan secara kebetulan oleh seorang "asisten" berusia 13 tahun, menunjukkan adanya bagian atap yang runtuh yang melestarian sejumlah isi Kamar 25.<ref>[http://www.itsgila.com/highlightspriestly.htm "Pilgrimage Panorama" - Barkay's account of the finding of the scrolls.]</ref>
<!--
ASuatu reconstructionrekonstruksi indicatesmengindikasikan thatadanya therelima werekamar fivedan chamberssatu andruangan atengah centralpada 'hall'gua in cavenomor 24. TheGua caveini coulddapat holdmenampung aboutsekitar 22+ bodiespada onbangku-bangku benches, each withdengan asandaran headrestkepala ofdari stonebatu. UnderDi threebawah oftiga thekamar chambersdalam ingua theitu caveterdapat theretempat werepenyimpanan, repositories.yang The repositories were used fordipakai [[:En:secondary burial|penguburan kedua]], whichartinya meanstulang-tulang thatdan thesisa bonesjenazah andyang othertelah remains of the long deceased body were removed and put into the repository,kuno thusdipindahkan makingke spacetempat forpenyimpanan anothersehingga bodymemberi ontempat thatbagi particularjenazah benchlain.<ref>SeeLihat articleartikel [[Secondary burial]].</ref> The chambers were neatly cut with smoothed surfaces using the [[royal cubit]] as measure. The repositories, such as that under chamber 25, had rough surfaces and a sack-like form, thus it was not intended to be seen. Ketef Hinnom cave 24 has a similar outline and capacity as the Mamilla cave complex 1 and 2, however, these cave complexes have more rooms than cave 24 at Ketef Hinnom. To accommodate more people Ketef Hinnom cave 24 has used the large chamber to the right to accommodate about 10 people, whereas this room in the Mamilla cave complexes did not have benches, thus probably they were used for chemical treatment of the bodies.
 
The repository under chamber 25 contained approximately 60&nbsp;cm of material with over a thousand objects: many small pottery vessels, artifacts of iron and bronze (including arrowheads), needles and pins, bone and ivory objects, glass bottles, and jewelry including earrings of gold and silver. In addition, the excavators found two tiny silver scrolls, referred to below as KH1 and KH2. The tomb had evidently been in use for several generations from about 650 BCE, that is towards the end of the [[First Temple]] period, and it continued to be used after the [[siege of Jerusalem (587 BC)|destruction of Jerusalem]] in 587/6 BCE.
-->
 
Barkay awalnya memberi tarikh akhir abad ke-7/awal abad ke-6 SM untuk pembuatan inskripsi, tetapi kemudian mengubahnya menjadi awal abad ke-6 SM berdasarkan studi [[paleografi]] (bentuk irisan yang cermat pada penulisan [[abjad Ibrani Kuno]]) dan bukti perangkat keramik di sekitar tempat penemuan.<!-- ThisTarikh datingini waspernah subsequentlydipertanyakan questioned byoleh Johannes Renz anddan Wolfgang Rollig,<ref>Renz, Johannes and Wolfgang Röllig, ''Handbuch der althebräischen Epigraphik'' (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995).</ref> whoyang arguedberargumen thatbahwa thekondisi scripttulisan wasterlalu inburuk toountuk poordapa aditarik conditionkesimpulan to be dated with certainty and that a 3rd/2nd century BCE provenance could not be excludedpasti, especiallyselain asjuga thepenemuannya repository,di whichsuatu hadtempat beensemacam usedpenyimpanan assampah ayang kindjuga ofmemuat "rubbishbarang-barang bin"dari forabad theke-4 burialSM. chamber over many centuries, also contained material from the fourth century BCE.
 
-->
Penelitian ulang gulungan-gulungan itu kemudian dilakukan oleh [[University of Southern California]] dalam rangka West Semitic Research Project, menggunakan teknik ''advanced photographic and computer enhancement'' yang dapat membaca gulungan itu lebih mudah serta penentuan tarikh menurut paleografi yang lebih pasti. Hasilnya menegaskan suatu tarikh pembuatan sesaat sebelum kehancuran Yerusalem oleh tentara Babel pada tahun 586/7 SM.<ref>Barkay, G., A.G. Vaughn, M.J. Lundberg and B. Zuckerman, "The Amulets from Ketef Hinnom: A New Edition and Evaluation," ''Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research'' 334 (2004): 41-71. (An innovation in the report was the simultaneous publication of an accompanying "digital article," a CD version of the article and the images).</ref> Dr. Kyle McCarter dari [[Johns Hopkins University]], seorang spesialis [[:En:Semitic scripts|tulisan Semitik]] kuno, berkata bahwa studi tersebut tentunya "menjelaskan kontroversi apa pun mengenai [penetapan tarikh] inskripsi-inskripsi ini".<ref name=Silver>[http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/28/science/28scro.html?_r=1&8dpc=&pagewanted=all&position=&oref=slogin "Solving a Riddle Written in Silver", New York Times, 2004].</ref>