Buka menu utama

Perubahan

1 bita dihapus ,  2 tahun yang lalu
k
Bot: Perubahan kosmetika
The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy:
{{cite book|last = Mclaughlin|first = Paul|title = Anarchism and Authority|publisher = Ashgate|location = Aldershot|year = 2007|isbn = 978-0754661962|page=59}}
{{cite book|last = Johnston|first = R.|title = The Dictionary of Human Geography|publisher = Blackwell Publishers|location = Cambridge|year = 2000|isbn = 0-631-20561-6|page=24}}</ref><ref name=slevin>Slevin, Carl. "Anarchism." ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics''. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.</ref>
Sementara anti-statisme adalah pusat dari pemikiran ini,<ref>"Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short."[http://books.google.com.ec/books?id=kkj5i3CeGbQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false ''Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism'' by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 28]</ref> anarkisme juga menentang otoritas atau organisasi hierarkis dalam pelaksanaan hubungannya dengan manusia, sehingga tidak terbatas pada sistem negara saja.<ref name="iaf-ifa.org">{{cite web |url=http://www.iaf-ifa.org/principles/english.html |title=IAF principles |publisher=[[International of Anarchist Federations]] |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20120105095946/http://www.iaf-ifa.org/principles/english.html |archivedate=5 January 2012 |deadurl=yes |quote=The IAF – IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.}}</ref><ref>"My use of the word hierarchy in the subtitle of this work is meant to be provocative. There is a strong theoretical need to contrast hierarchy with the more widespread use of the words class and State; careless use of these terms can produce a dangerous simplification of social reality. To use the words hierarchy, class, and State interchangeably, as many social theorists do, is insidious and obscurantist. This practice, in the name of a "classless" or "libertarian" society, could easily conceal the existence of hierarchical relationships and a hierarchical sensibility, both of which-even in the absence of economic exploitation or political coercion-would serve to perpetuate unfreedom." [[Murray Bookchin]]. ''The Ecology of Freedom: the emergence and dissolution of Hierarchy. CHESHIRE BOOKS
Palo Alto. 1982. Pg. 3''</ref><ref>"Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation."[http://books.google.com.ec/books?id=kkj5i3CeGbQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false ''Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism'' by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1]</ref><ref>"Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." [[Emma Goldman]]. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in ''[[Anarchism and Other Essays]]''.</ref><ref>Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, – follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism&nbsp;... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." [[Benjamin Tucker]]. [http://www.theanarchistlibrary.org/HTML/Benjamin_Tucker__Individual_Liberty.html ''Individual Liberty.'']</ref><ref name="Ward 1966">{{cite web |url=http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html|last=Ward|first=Colin|year=1966|title=Anarchism as a Theory of Organization|accessdate=1 March 2010| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20100325081119/http://www.panarchy.org/ward/organization.1966.html| archivedate= 25 March 2010<!--Added by DASHBot-->}}</ref><ref>Anarchist historian [[George Woodcock]] report of [[Mikhail Bakunin]]'s anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9)&nbsp;... Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."</ref><ref>{{cite book|last=Brown|first=L. Susan|chapter=Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism|title=The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism|publisher=Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing|year= 2002|page=106}}</ref>