Mazhab Austria: Perbedaan revisi

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Robot: Perubahan kosmetika
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{{Kotak samping Mazhab Austria|expanded=all}}
{{Kotak samping neoliberalisme|expanded=Ekonomi}}
'''Mazhab Austria''' adalah [[mazhab ekonomi]] yang didasarkan pada konsep [[individualisme metodologis]], artinya fenomena sosial tercipta berkat motivasi dan tindakan seseorang.<ref>Carl Menger, Principles of Economics, online at https://www.mises.org/etexts/menger/principles.asp</ref><ref name="econlib">{{cite encyclopedia |last1=Boettke |first1=Peter J. |authorlink1= Peter Boettke |last2= |first2= |authorlink2= |editor= [[David R. Henderson]] (ed.) |encyclopedia=[[Concise Encyclopedia of Economics]] |title=Austrian School of Economics |url=http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/AustrianSchoolofEconomics.html |year=2008 |edition= 2nd |publisher=[[Library of Economics and Liberty]] |isbn=978-0865976658 |oclc=237794267}}</ref><ref>[http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/methodological-individualism/ Methodological Individualism at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ]</ref><ref name="Mises_Action">Ludwig von Mises. [[Human Action]], p. 11, "r. Purposeful Action and Animal Reaction". Referenced 2011-11-23.</ref> Mazhab ini muncul pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 di Wina melalui karya-karya [[Carl Menger]], [[Eugen Böhm von Bawerk]], [[Friedrich von Wieser]], dan lain-lain.<ref>Joseph A. Schumpeter, History of economic analysis, Oxford University Press 1996, ISBN 978-01951055990-19-510559-9.</ref> Secara metodologis, mazhab ini berseberangan dengan [[mazhab ekonomi historis|mazhab historis Prusia]]. Perbedaan antara keduanya disebut [[Methodenstreit]]). Ekonom modern yang mengikuti mazhab Austria tersebar di berbagai negara, namun gagasan mereka tetap disebut '''ekonomi Austria'''.
 
Kontribusi teori Mazhab Austria meliputi [[teori nilai subjektif]], [[marginalisme]] dalam [[ekonomi mikro|teori harga]], dan perumusan [[masalah perhitungan ekonomi]], masing-masing sudah diterima sebagai bagian dari [[ekonomi arus utama]].<ref>{{Cite book | last1 = Birner | first1 = Jack | first2 = Rudy | last2 = van Zijp | title = Hayek, Co-ordination and Evolution: His Legacy in Philosophy, Politics, Economics and the History of Ideas | location = London, New York | publisher = [[Routledge]] | year= 1994 | page = 94 | isbn = 978-0-415-09397-2}}</ref>
Banyak ekonom yang mengkritik Mazhab Austria modern dan menganggap penolakan [[ekonometrika]] dan analisis [[ekonomi makro]] agregatnya tidak sejalan dengan [[ekonomi arus utama|teori arus utama]] atau [[ekonomi heterodoks|heterodoks]]<ref name="Austrian Economists: Boettke">{{Cite web|url=http://austrianeconomists.typepad.com/weblog/2008/05/is-austrian-eco.html|title=Is Austrian Economics Heterodox Economics?|last=Boettke |first=Peter|publisher=The Austrian Economists|accessdate=2009-02-13| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20090328232903/http://austrianeconomists.typepad.com/weblog/2008/05/is-austrian-eco.html| archivedate= 28 March 2009 <!--DASHBot-->| deadurl= no}}</ref><ref name="Boettke and Leeson">{{Cite book|last=Boettke|first=Peter J.|author2=[[Peter T. Leeson]]|title=A Companion to the History of Economic Thought|editor=[[Warren Samuels]], Jeff E. Biddle, and John B. Davis|pages=446–452|chapter=28A: The Austrian School of Economics 1950-2000|url=https://books.google.com/?id=3H8gBQv5MysC&pg=PA445&dq=austrian+school+heterodox+economics |publisher=Blackwell Publishing |year=2003 |isbn=978-0-631-22573-7}}</ref><ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.economist.com/node/21542174 | title=Heterodox economics: Marginal revolutionaries | publisher=The Economist | date=December 31, 2011 | accessdate=February 22, 2012}}</ref><ref name="BCaplan">{{Cite web|url=http://www.gmu.edu/departments/economics/bcaplan/whyaust.htm|title=Why I Am Not an Austrian Economist |last=Caplan |first=Bryan |publisher=Bryan Caplan at [[George Mason University]] faculty page |accessdate=2008-07-04 | quote=...More than anything else, what prevents Austrians from getting more publications in mainstream journals is that their papers rarely use mathematics or econometrics, research tools that Austrians reject on principle. ...Mises and Rothbard however err when they say that economic history can ''only'' illustrate economic theory. In particular, empirical evidence is often necessary to determine whether a theoretical factor is ''quantitatively significant''. ...Austrians reject econometrics on principle because economic theory is true a priori, so statistics or historical study cannot 'test' theory....}}</ref> Sebaliknya, ekonom aliran Austria juga mengkritik ekonomi arus utama.<ref>[https://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae3_2_3.pdf Austrian Economics and the Mainstream: View from the Boundary], Roger E. Backhouse</ref> Meski Mazhab Austria sudah dianggap heterodoks sejak akhir 1930-an, akademisi dan masyarakat mulai tertarik dengan mazhab ini pada tahun 1970-an.<ref name="GMeijer">{{cite book |last=Meijer |first=G. |title=New Perspectives on Austrian Economics |publisher=Routledge |location=New York |year=1995 |isbn=978-0-415-12283-2 }}</ref>
 
== Karya utama ==
* ''[[Principles of Economics]]'' (1871) karya [[Carl Menger]]<ref name="econlib"/>
* ''[[Capital and Interest]]'' (1884, 1889, 1921) karya [[Eugen Böhm von Bawerk]]<ref name="econlib"/>
* ''[[Man, Economy, and State]]'' (1962) karya [[Murray N. Rothbard]]<ref name="econlib"/><!-- See also ''[[Power and Markets]]'', written at the same time as ''[[Man, Economy, and State]]'' and originally intended to constitute the final chapter of ''[[Man, Economy, and State]]''. -->
 
== Lihat pula ==
{{Portal|Ekonomi|Libertarianisme}}
* [[Daftar ekonom Mazhab Austria]]
* [[New Institutional Economics]]
 
== Catatan kaki ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Bacaan lanjutan ==
* {{cite journal | last1 = Agafonow | first1 = Alejandro | year = 2012 | title = The Austrian Dehomogenization Debate, or the Possibility of a Hayekian Planner | url = https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/revpoe/v24y2012i2p273-287.html | journal = Review of Political Economy | volume = 24 | issue = 2 }}
* Harald Hagemann, Tamotsu Nishizawa, and Yukihiro Ikeda, eds. ''Austrian Economics in Transition: From Carl Menger to Friedrich Hayek'' (Palgrave Macmillan; 2010) 339 pages
* {{cite book| last =Holcombe| first =Randall| title =The Great Austrian Economists| publisher =Ludwig von Mises Institute| date =1999| location =Auburn, Alabama| pages =273| url =https://mises.org/library/great-austrian-economists| isbn =0945466048 }}
* Stephen Littlechild, ed. (1990). ''Austrian economics'', 3 v. Edward Elgar. [http://www.e-elgar.co.uk/bookentry_mainUS.lasso?id=682 Description] and scroll to chapter preview [https://books.google.com/books?id=XoZXUkYGj-oC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_v2_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false links] for v. 1.
* {{Citation| last =Schulak| first =Eugen-Maria| last2 =Unterköfler| first2 =Herbert| title =The Austrian School of Economics: A History of Its Ideas, Ambassadors, and Institutions| place =Auburn, Alabama| publisher =Ludwig von Mises Institute| year =2011| pages =262| url =https://mises.org/library/austrian-school-economics-history-its-ideas-ambassadors-and-institutions| isbn =9781610161343 }}
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{Commons category|Austrian School}}
* [http://wiki.mises.org/wiki/Austrian_School Austrian School] at Mises Wiki
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[[CategoryKategori:Mazhab Austria| ]]
[[CategoryKategori:Ekonomi heterodoks]]
[[CategoryKategori:Teori libertarian]]