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Perubahan

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Robot: Perubahan kosmetika
The Museum's first collections were assembled by the Manchester Society of Natural History formed in 1821 with the purchase of the collection of [[John Leigh Philips]].<ref name="MMHist">The History of the Manchester Museum, University of Manchester [http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/history/], accessed 25 November 2007</ref> In 1850 the collections of the Manchester Geological Society were added. By the 1860s both societies encountered financial difficulties and, on the advice of the evolutionary biologist [[Thomas Huxley]], [[Owens College]] (now the University of Manchester) accepted responsibility for the collections in 1867. The museum in Peter Street was sold in 1875 after Owens College moved to new buildings in Oxford Street.<ref>Thompson, Joseph (1886) ''The Owens College: its Foundation and Growth''. Manchester: J. E. Cornish; pp.&nbsp;282–86</ref>
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[[FileBerkas:Manchester Museum by Nick Higham.jpg|thumbnail|Bekas pintu masuk utama Manchester Museum.]]
<!--The college commissioned [[Alfred Waterhouse]], architect of London's [[Natural History Museum, London|Natural History Museum]], to design a museum to house the collections for the benefit of students and the public on a site in Oxford Road (then Oxford Street). The Manchester Museum was opened to the public in 1888. At the time, the scientific departments of the college were immediately adjacent, and students entered the galleries from their teaching rooms in the Beyer Building.<ref name="MMHist" /><ref>Charlton, H. B. (1951) ''Portrait of a University''. Manchester: U. P.; chap. V</ref>
 
Ancient Worlds opened in October 2012 and transformed the main galleries of the 1912 building. Discovering Archaeology explores how people make sense of the past using objects and includes exhibits on facial reconstruction and some of the characters who were involved in the development of archaeology and the museum, including [[William Flinders Petrie]] and [[William Boyd Dawkins]]. Egyptian Worlds, takes visitors on a journey through the landscape, customs and practices of the Ancient Egyptians. Exploring Objects, reveals the archaeology collections through '[[visible storage]]' with a difference. The gallery incorporates a [[haptic]] interactive.
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[[fileBerkas:Stan the Trex at Manchester Museum.jpg|left|thumb|250px|''Stan'', sebuah cetakan reproduksi fosil ''[[Tyrannosaurus rex]]'' yang diperoleh museum ini pada tahun 2004.]]
<!--In June 2013 [[Time-lapse photography|time-lapse]] footage showing a 10 inch Egyptian statue in the museum's collection, apparently spinning around unaided, attracted worldwide media attention.<ref>{{Cite news|author=Sasha Goldstein|url=http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/egyptian-statue-moves-amazing-video-article-1.1380450#commentpostform|publisher=''[[Daily News (New York)|Daily News]]''|title=Ancient Egyptian statue at Manchester Museum moves on its own, stumped curator says|date=2013-06-23|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=New York}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|author=Dan Kedmey|url=http://newsfeed.time.com/2013/06/25/watch-spinning-statue-at-manchester-museum-mystifies-staff/|publisher=''[[Time (magazine)|Time]]''|title=WATCH: Spinning Statue at Manchester Museum Mystifies Staff|date=2013-06-25|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=New York}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|author=|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-manchester-23030009|publisher=[[BBC News]]|title=Manchester Museum's moving Egyptian statue puzzler|date=2013-06-24|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=London}}</ref> Various theories were put forward, with the university's Professor [[Brian Cox (physicist)|Brian Cox]] suggesting "differential friction" between the glass shelf and the object, possibly caused by vibrations made by visitors, caused the object to move.<ref name="Telegraph">{{Cite news|author=|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newsvideo/weirdnewsvideo/10137556/Mystery-as-museum-statue-starts-turning-in-display-case.html|publisher=''[[The Daily Telegraph]]''|title=Mystery as museum statue starts turning in display case|date=2013-06-23|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=London}}</ref> The museum's Egyptologist Campbell Price, said "it has been on those surfaces since we have had it and it has never moved before. And why would it go around in a perfect circle?".<ref name="Telegraph"/> The ''[[Manchester Evening News]]'' reported that the incident "sent visitor numbers soaring at the Manchester Museum",<ref name="MEN">{{Cite news|author=Richard Wheatstone|url=http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/moving-statue-sets-turnstiles-spinning-4710126|publisher=''[[Manchester Evening News]]''|title='Moving statue' sets the turnstiles spinning as visitors flock to Manchester Museum|date=2013-06-25|accessdate=2013-06-25|location=Manchester}}</ref> and Tim Manley, head of marketing and communications, commented that "There's been a definite spike in visitors".<ref name="MEN"/>
 
== Koleksi ==
 
=== Antropologi ===
Koleksinya berjumlah sekitar 16.000 artefak, hampir separuhnya dari Afrika.<!-- Material from Oceania makes up a quarter and much of the remainder comes from Asia and the Americas. The first large donation came from Robert Dukinfield Darbishire (1826–1908), beginning in 1904/05. Darbishire gave about 700 items, including ceramics from Peru and Eskimo carvings. In 1922, Charles Heape donated his Oceanian and American collection amounting to about 1500 items. It included a collection of weapons and paddles from the Pacific islands, collected by missionaries and others, though some items from the Aborigines of Victoria were acquired while Heape was resident. The Lloyd collection of Japanese metalwork, carvings and ceramics were the bequest of R. W. Lloyd. There are two collections obtained in the field by professional anthropologists. Frank Willett collected pottery, masks and ritual regalia in Nigeria in 1956 and Peter Worsley collected basketry and other items from the Wanindiljaugwa people of [[Groote Eylandt]], Australia in 1952.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;11–13</ref>
 
=== Arkeologi ===
[[fileBerkas:Pepi II Koptos 2.jpg|right|200px|thumb|Pahatan [[Pepi II]] dari kuil [[Menes]] dan [[Isis]] di [[Qift]], bagian dari koleksi Egyptological museum Manchester.]]
Area pengumpulan koleksi utama dalam arkeologi adalah Eropa Barat, [[Laut Tengah]], [[Mesir]] dan [[Asia]] Barat.<!-- Large accessions of material from Egypt and Western Asia came from the excavations of Sir [[Flinders Petrie]] and subsequently archaeologists from the university have been involved in expeditions to Western Asia and brought more finds. The Egyptological collections include finds from [[Kahun]] and [[Gurob]], presented in 1890 by [[Jesse Haworth]] and [[Martyn Kennard]]. By 1912 the growth of this area had been so great that a new wing was added for the Egyptian material to which Jesse Haworth made a major donation of funds. The Egyptian Mummy Research Project, begun in 1973, has yielded much information on health and social conditions in ancient Egypt and radiology and endoscopy have been used extensively. A redesign of the galleries in 1984/85 resulted in improved displays.<ref>''The Manchester Museum'' (1985)</ref> The archaeology collections were redisplayed in 2011 in the Ancient Worlds galleries. A [[bog body]], [[Chat Moss#Worsley Man|Worsley Man]], is also in the care of the museum.<ref>{{citation |last=Pain |first=Stephanie |title=The Head from Worsley Moss |journal=New Scientist |issue=2414 |date=23 September 2003 |issn=0262-4079}}</ref> [[Lindow Man]], another bog body had previously been displayed.--><ref>{{citation |url=http://www.britarch.ac.uk/awards/ |title=British Archaeological Awards |publisher=[[Council for British Archaeology]] |date=19 July 2010 |accessdate=2014-02-07}}</ref>
 
Koleksi inti panahan terdiri dari sekitar 2.000 barang pameran yang dikumpulkan oleh [[Ingo Simon]] dan disumbangkan pada tahun 1946. Simon adalah seorang pemanah ulung yang bertahun-tahun meneliti sejarah dan perkembangan busur panah.<!-- From 1914 to 1933 he held the world record for a flight-shot at 462&nbsp;yards; he died in 1964 and his widow Erna (lady world champion, 1937, d. 1973) endowed a trust to conserve and develop the collection which includes artefacts from Great Britain, Brazil, Europe, India, Pakistan, Japan, Central Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;18–19</ref>
 
=== Botani ===
Manchester Herbarium memuat lebih dari 950.000 spesimen yang dikumpulkan selama abad ke-18, ke-19 dan ke-20 dan berasal dari banyak negara.<!-- Accessions are still made and many specialist enquiries are received. Only a small part of the collection is exhibited. Important contributions came from Charles Bailey and James Cosmo Melvill and some specimens from [[Carolus Linnæus]], the expeditions of [[Charles Darwin]] and [[John Franklin|Admiral Sir John Franklin]] are included. The small collection made by [[Leopold Hartley Grindon|Leopold H. Grindon]] which includes many cultivated plants is also important.--><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/plants/|title=The Herbarium|last=Manchester Museum|accessdate=2009-10-05}}</ref><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;6–8</ref>
 
The museum's collection of [[zeolite]] group minerals originated from a donation by [[Caroline Birley]] in 1894.--><ref>{{cite web |title=Other Major Collectors|url=http://www.museum.manchester.ac.uk/collection/rocksandminerals/|work=Rocks and Minerals|publisher=Manchester Museum|accessdate=26 January 2012}}</ref>
 
=== Entomologi ===
Koleksi museum ini terdiri dari hampir 3 juta spesimen. Terdapat 10.500 jenis spesimen (dari 2.300 spesies) dan masih sering ditambah.<!-- [[Coleoptera]] represent about half the total number of specimens. The British collections constitute about 1,250,000 specimens and only a small proportion of the known species are unrepresented. Harry Britten, assistant keeper 1918–1938, had a leading role in the development of the collection. Coleoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera specimens amount to some 1,100,000 in total. Of the [[Euclemensia woodiella|Manchester Moth (''Euclemensia woodiella'')]] captured on [[Kersal Moor]] in 1829, one of only three specimens known to be in existence is here. The remainder of the collection is of foreign origin and W. D. Hincks and John R. Dibb contributed great quantities of specimens, particularly of Coleoptera. Coleoptera number some 900,000 out of an approximate total 1,750,000. The Chrysomedinae-Cassidinae collection of Franz Spaeth is the finest collection in the world of tortoise-beetles.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;9–10</ref>
 
Mata uang logam pertama disumbangkan oleh pedagang Reuben Spencer pada tahun 1895 dan sisa koleksinya yang berupa uang logam Eropa serta berbagai medali kenangan dari beragam jenis logam disumbangkan secara bertahap.<!--Alfred Güterbock deposited, then bequeathed a collection of 380 Greek gold, silver and copper coins together with some Roman coins. In the next forty years four benefactions were made: in 1912 from William Smith Churchill (European coins of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries); in 1925 William Smith Ogden's collection of antiquities, including Greek and Roman coins; in 1939 Egbert Steinthal, honorary keeper of the coin room, presented his collection of English copper coins; and in 1958 Harold Raby's bequest of Greek and Roman coins. Harold Raby succeeded Steinthal as honorary keeper and they were responsible for work on the arrangement and identification of the coins.--><ref>''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985; pp.&nbsp;16–17</ref>
 
=== Mamalia ===
Koleksi meliputi ribuan spesimen [[mamalia]].<!-- Many mounted specimens are from the original Manchester Natural History Society collection. Mounted mammals include a [[Lowland Gorilla]], an [[Aye Aye]], and a [[Red Panda]] collected by [[Brian Houghton Hodgson]]. Most mammal groups are represented. Mr Potter's cow is a member of the British White breed from the extinct Gisburne herd from the 1830s. The museum holds a number of examples of [[taxidermy]] by [[Rowland Ward]] for Maurice Egerton (Lord Egerton of Tatton Park). The collection includes bones and skulls of a wide range of mammals, covering most major groups. Many of the collections were transferred from the Anatomy Department in the 1980s. The museum holds the bone collection put together by Derek Yalden.
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Notable specimens include a male and female [[Huia]], bones of the [[Dodo]], an [[Elephant Bird]] egg, the only known egg of the [[Slender-billed Curlew]], two study skins, a mount and several eggs of the [[Passenger Pigeon]], bones of the [[Great Auk]], a male and female [[Ivory-billed Woodpecker]], three specimens of the [[Paradise Parrot]] and a [[Warbler Finch]] collected by [[Charles Darwin]].<ref>McGhie, HA 2005. Specimens of extinct and endangered birds in the collections of the Manchester Museum, the University of Manchester, UK. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 125: 247-252.</ref>
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=== Koral ===
Museum ini memiliki banyak spesimen [[koral]] yang asalnya milik [[Sydney Hickson]], seorang ahli koral dan satu kali menjabat sebagai Professor of Zoology pada University of Manchester.<!-- These include a number of type specimens of names published by Hickson and others, including [[Stanley Gardiner]].
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=== Bryozoa ===
Museum ini menyimpan koleksi [[bryozoa]] milik Arthur Waters, seorang naturalis yang tinggal dekat Manchester. <!--Waters described the bryozoa of the [[Challenger expedition]]. The collection includes approximately 10,000 specimens including hundreds of type specimens. The museum also holds the brozoa collection of Eliza Jelly, another eminent 19th-century bryozoologist.
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=== Moluska ===
Museum ini memiliki koleksi [[moluska]] terbesar keempat di [[Britania Raya]] dengan jumlah 166.000 lot.<ref name="McGhie"/> <!--The collection grew around that of the [[Manchester Society for the Promotion of Natural History]], which acquired one of [[William John Swainson|William Swainson]]'s shell collections in 1825 and which also included the collection of Captain [[Thomas Brown (naturalist)|Thomas Brown]].<ref name="McGhie"/> Catalogue of type specimens was published in 2008.<ref name="McGhie"/>
 
Koleksi meliputi sekitar 5.000 spesimen spirit dari abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, meskipun perolehan terbaru termasuk koleksi [[alligator]] yang dibentuk oleh Professor Mark Ferguson dari [[Faculty of Life Sciences]] dan [[Renovo plc]].
 
=== Slide Mikroskop ===
Koleksi meliputi koleksi [[foraminifera]] Frederick Pearcey, yang ikut dalam who [[Challenger Expedition]] dan suatu saat bekerja di museum ini. Koleksi foram lain dari Joseph Sidebotham dan E. Halkyard.
 
== Anggota staf yang terkenal ==
* [[William Boyd Dawkins]], geolog dan arkeolog.
* [[William Evans Hoyle]], direktur 1889-1909
* Harry Britten, asistan pengurus Entomology, 1918–1938
* Rosalie David, Egyptologist
* [[Michael Eagar (geologist)|Michael Eagar]], geolog, deputy director 1977–87<ref>''Coprolite''; No. 41 (2003); p. 2 http://www.geocurator.org/arch/Corpolite/Cop41.pdf</ref>
* [[Walter Medley Tattersall]], zoolog, direktur 1909–22
* Tristram Besterman, direktur
 
== Pustaka ==
 
== Pustaka tambahan ==
* ''The Manchester Museum''. Derby: English Life, 1985 (24 pp.; col. illustrations and plan) ISBN 0-85101-249-3
* ''The Manchester Museum''. Manchester: the Museum, 1998 (22 pp.; col. illustrations and plan)
* ''The Manchester Museum: Window to the World''. 2012 (col. illustrations)
 
== Pranala luar ==
{{commons category}}
* [http://www.manchester.ac.uk/museum The Manchester Museum]
 
{{University of Manchester}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2011}}
 
[[CategoryKategori:Museum di Britania Raya]]
[[CategoryKategori:Natural history museums in England]]
[[CategoryKategori:University of Manchester]]
[[CategoryKategori:Alfred Waterhouse buildings]]
[[CategoryKategori:University museums in the United Kingdom]]
[[CategoryKategori:Archaeological museums in England]]
[[CategoryKategori:Egyptological collections in England]]
[[CategoryKategori:Numismatic museums in the United Kingdom]]
[[CategoryKategori:Sports museums in the United Kingdom]]
[[CategoryKategori:Local museums in Greater Manchester]]
[[CategoryKategori:Greenhouses]]
[[CategoryKategori:Museums established in 1867]]
[[CategoryKategori:1867 establishments in England]]
[[CategoryKategori:Shell museums]]
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