Wikimedia Foundation: Perbedaan revisi

14.258 bita dihapus ,  4 tahun yang lalu
tidak ada ringkasan suntingan
(reviewed)
{{refimprove|date=May 2012}}
[[Berkas:Wikimedia_logo_family_complete-current.svg|right|thumb|Lambang Wikimedia Foundation]]
{{distinguish2|[[money laundering]], the process of legitimating money}}
'''''Wikimedia Foundation Inc.''''' atau '''Yayasan Wikimedia''' adalah organisasi pusat dari [[Wikipedia]], [[Wiktionary]], [[Wikiquote]], [[Wikibooks]], [[Wikisource]], [[Wikispecies]], [[Wikiversity]] serta proyek-proyek kolaboratif Meta-Wiki. Wikimedia merupakan organisasi [[nirlaba]] yang berada di bawah [[undang-undang]] [[Florida]], [[Amerika Serikat]]. Keberadaannya secara resmi dicanangkan oleh CEO (direktur) [[Bomis]] dan salah satu pendiri Wikipedia, [[Jimbo Wales]] pada tanggal [[30 Juni]] [[2003]]. Nama "Wikimedia" ditetapkan oleh Sheldon Rampton dalam ''posting'' [[milis]] WikiEN-l pada bulan [[Maret]] 2003. Kemudian nama domain [http://wikimedia.org/ wikimedia.org] dan [[wmf:home|wikimediafoundation.org]] didapatkan untuk [[yayasan]] Wikipedia oleh seorang kontributor, Daniel Mayer.
[[File:Italian hanging laundry.jpg|thumb|upright=1.3|Laundry hung to dry above Italian streets have throughout the years became like a symbol for [[Italy]].]]
[[File:Laundry in Paris.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|A [[self-service laundry]] in Paris]]
 
'''Laundry''' is the [[washing]] of [[clothing]] and [[linen]]s.<ref name="Laundry">{{cite web| url= http://www.thefreedictionary.com/laundry|title=Laundry|publisher=The Free Dictionary By Farlex|accessdate=2012-05-24}}</ref> Laundry processes are often done in a room reserved for that purpose; in an individual home this is referred to as a ''[[laundry room]]'' or ''[[utility room]]''. An apartment building or student [[hall of residence]] may have a shared laundry facility such as a [[tvättstuga]]. A stand-alone business is referred to as a [[laundrette]] (laundromat). The material that is being washed, or has been laundered, is also generally referred to as ''laundry''.
Tujuan yayasan ini adalah mendukung perkembangan [[pengetahuan bebas]], proyek-proyek berdasarkan, [[wiki|WikiWiki]] dan menyediakan isi daripada proyek ini kepada khalayak ramai secara bebas dan [[gratis]], tanpa [[iklan]].
 
==History==
==Proyek-proyek Wikimedia==
[[File:0 Bruxelles - Petit Sablon - Blanchisseur.JPG|thumb|right|The launderer by [[Jef Lambeaux]]]]
{| class="wikitable sortable"
[[File:Laundry in the river.jpg|thumb|Laundry in the river in contemporary [[Abidjan]]]]
|-
[[File:Rhof-handwaschen.ogg|thumb|Irreler Bauerntradition shows the history of laundry at the [[Roscheider Hof Open Air Museum]]]]
!Nama
!Alamat web
!Diluncurkan
!Keterangan
|-
|Wikipedia
|[http://www.wikipedia.org/ wikipedia.org]
|{{start date|2001|01|15}}
|Ensiklopedia saat ini memiliki lebih dari 20 juta artikel dalam 285 bahasa.
|-
|[[Wikipedia:Meta|Meta-Wiki]]
|[http://meta.wikimedia.org/ meta.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2001|11|09}}
|Wiki untuk koordinasi antar proyek.
|-
|[[MediaWiki]]
|[http://www.mediawiki.org/ mediawiki.org]
|{{start date|2002|01|25}}
|Perangkat lunak Wiki
|-
|[[Wiktionary]]
|[http://www.wiktionary.org/ wiktionary.org]
|{{start date|2002|12|12}}
|Kamus, sinonim, etimologi dan terjemahan.
|-
|[[Wikiquote]]
|[http://www.wikiquote.org/ wikiquote.org]
|{{start date|2003|07|10}}
|Koleksi kutipan.
|-
|[[Wikibooks]]
|[http://www.wikibooks.org/ wikibooks.org]
|{{start date|2003|07|19}}
|Koleksi bahan edukasi dan bahan ajar bebas.
|-
|[[Wikisource]]
|[http://wikisource.org/wiki/Main_Page wikisource.org]
|{{start date|2003|11|24}}
|Proyek untuk penerjemahan dokumen sumber bebas.
|-
|[[Wikimedia Commons]]
|[[commons:Main Page|commons.wikimedia.org]]
|{{start date|2004|09|07}}
|Gudang penyimpanan gambar, suara, video dan media umum, berisi lebih dari 12 juta fail.
|-
|[[Wikispecies]]
|[http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page species.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2004|09|14}}
|Direktori data spesies tentang [[binatang]], [[tanaman]], fungi, bakteria, [[archaea]], [[protista]] dan bentuk kehidupan lainnya.
|-
|[[Wikinews]]
|[http://www.wikinews.org/ wikinews.org]
|{{start date|2004|11|08}}
|Sumber berita asli oleh ''citizen journalists''.
|-
|[[Wikimania]]
|[http://wikimania.wikimedia.org/ wikimania.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2005|08|04}}
|Situs konferensi Wikimania
|-
|Wikipedia Test Wiki
|[http://test.wikipedia.org/ test.wikipedia.org]
|{{start date|2006|01|13}}
|Test wiki that runs a recent version of [[MediaWiki]]
|-
|[[meta:Wikimedia Incubator|Wikimedia Incubator]]
|[[incubator:Main Page|incubator.wikimedia.org]]
|{{start date|2006|06|02}}
|Used to test possible new languages for existing projects.
|-
|[[Wikiversity]]
|[http://www.wikiversity.org/ wikiversity.org]
|{{start date|2006|08|15}}
|Aktifitas edukasi dan hasil riset.
|-
|[[Wikivoyage]]
|[http://www.wikivoyage.org/ wikivoyage.org]
|{{start date|2006|12|10}} ({{start date|2013|01|15}} as a WMF project)
|Panduan perjalanan
|-
|[[m:Wikipedia Usability Initiative|Wikipedia Usability Initiative]]
|[http://usability.wikimedia.org/ usability.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2009|02|04}}
|Usability team wiki
|-
|[[#Strategic Plan|Wikimedia Strategic planning]]
|[http://strategy.wikimedia.org/ strategy.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2009|07|23}}
|Strategy planning work for all Wikimedia projects (wiki now locked)
|-
|[[m:Wikimedia Outreach|Wikimedia Outreach]]
|[http://outreach.wikimedia.org/ outreach.wikimedia.org]
|{{start date|2009|10|27}}
|Promotion of Wikimedia projects
|-
|[[Wikidata]]
|[http://www.wikidata.org/ wikidata.org]
|{{start date|2012|10|30}}
|Free knowledge base
|-
|}
 
=== Chapter-chapterWatercourses ===
Saat ini terdapat '''{{CHAPTER-COUNT}}''' chapter resmi Wikimedia diseluruh dunia.
 
Laundry was first done in watercourses, letting the water carry away the materials which could cause stains and smells. Laundry is still done this way in some less industrialized areas and rural regions. Agitation helps remove the dirt, so the laundry is often rubbed, twisted, or slapped against flat rocks. Wooden bats or clubs could be used to help with beating the dirt out. These were often called washing beetles or bats and could be used by the waterside on a rock (a beetling-stone), on a block (battling-block), or on a board. They were once common across Europe and were also used by settlers in North America. Similar techniques have also been identified in Japan.
{| class="wikitable sortable plainlinks" cellpadding="4" style="margin: 1em 0; font-size: 90%"
|-
! ''country<br />code''
! Chapter
! style="width:7em;" | Founding &nbsp;(Approval)&nbsp;&nbsp; date
! Bylaws
! W:Website<br/>I:[http://identi.ca/peopletag/wikimediachapter Identi.ca]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wikisignpost/wikimedia-chapters/members Twitter]<br />F:Facebook
! Mailing list
! I:IRC<br />M:Mail contact<br />U:User contact<br />O:Other Contact
! Non-<br/>profit? <ref>Is the chapter formally recognized as a [[w:en:Nonprofit organization|Nonprofit organization]] under its nation's laws? "n/a" should be used if the country's laws do not recognize a nonprofit status.</ref>
! style="width:5em;" | Last verified
! style="width:7em;" | Members
! Yearly&nbsp;membership&nbsp;fee
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ar.png]] ar
| [[Wikimedia Argentina]]
| 2007-09-01<br />(''2007-12-11'')
| [[Wikimedia Argentina/Bylaws|es, en]]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.org.ar/ wikimedia.org.ar/]<br />I:[http://identi.ca/wikimediaargentina @wikimediaargentina]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wikimedia_ar @wikimedia_ar]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaArgentina WikimediaArgentina]
| [http://lists.wikimedia.org.ar/mailman/listinfo/wikimedia-ar Wikimedia-ar]
| M:correo{{@|12px}}wikimedia.org.ar<br />U:Carlos Barcenilla<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-ar|#wikimedia-ar]]
| yes
| 2011-02-05
| 070~
| full members ARS 100 (~USD 25)<br /> adherents ARS 50 (~USD 12.5)<br /> minors ARS 30 (~USD 7.50)
|-
|-
|[[Image:Icons-flag-am.png]] am
|[[Wikimedia Armenia]]
| (2013-03-26)
| [[Վիքիմեդիա Հայաստան/Կանոնադրություն|bylaws]]
|[http://wikimedia.am/ wikimedia.am]<br/>[[Wikimedia Armenia| Wikimedia Armenia on Meta]]
|
| [[User:SusikMkr| SusikMkr]]
|
|2013-03-27
|
|
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-at.png]] at
| [[Wikimedia Österreich]]
| 2008-05-02<br />(''2008-02-26'')
| [[Wikimedia Österreich/Statuten|de]], [[Wikimedia Österreich/Statuten/final/en|en]]
| [http://wikimedia.at/ wikimedia.at]
| [[mail:VereinAT-l|Verein-AT-l]]
| M:verein{{@|12px}}wikimedia.at<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-at|#wikimedia-at]]<br />vorstand@wikimedia.at
| ?
| 2011-03-01
| 065~
| 20 €<br />reduced 15 €<br />legal entities 100 €<br />sponsoring members 500€
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-au.png]] au
| [[Wikimedia Australia]]
| 2008-08-06<br />(''2008-03-04'')
| [[Wikimedia Australia/Rules for Wikimedia Australia Inc|en]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.org.au/ wikimedia.org.au]
| [[mail:Wikimediaau-l|Wikimediaau-l]]
| M:contact{{@|12px}}wikimedia.org.au<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-au|#wikimedia-au]]
| yes
| 2010-01-19
| 047
| AU$20<br />AU$10 concession
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-bd.png]] bd
| [[Wikimedia Bangladesh]]<br>
| Not yet<br />(''2011-10-03'')
| [[Wikimedia Bangladesh/MoA|en]]
| [[Wikimedia Bangladesh]]
| [[mail:Wikimedia-bd|Wikimedia-BD]]
| [[irc:#wikimedia-bd|#wikimedia-bd]]
| ?
| 2011-05-24
|
|
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ca.png]] ca
| [[Wikimedia Canada]]
| 2010-11-05<br />(2011-05-24)
| [http://wikimedia.ca/wiki/Bylaws en], [http://wikimedia.ca/wiki/Statuts fr]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.ca/ wikimedia.ca]<br/>T:[https://twitter.com/WikimediaCA @WikimediaCA]<br/>F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaCA WikimediaCA]
| [https://groups.google.com/group/wmca-public Google Group]
| M:info{{@|12px}}wikimedia.ca
| yes<ref>[http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cd-dgc.nsf/eng/cs04768.html Letters Patent]</ref><ref>Applying for charitable status as well.</ref>
| 2011-06-05
| 040~
| $10 CAD
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ch.png]] ch
| [[Wikimedia CH]]
| 2006-05-14
| [https://www.wikimedia.ch/de/who-are-we/statuten de], [https://www.wikimedia.ch/fr/association/statuts fr], [https://www.wikimedia.ch/it/who-are-we/statuto it], [https://www.wikimedia.ch/rm/who-are-we/bylaws rm], [https://www.wikimedia.ch/who-are-we/bylaws en]
| W: [http://wikimedia.ch wikimedia.ch]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/WikimediaCH @WikimediaCH]<br />F: [https://www.facebook.com/WikimediaCH Wikimedia CH]
| [[mail:wikimediach-l|wikimediach-l]]
| M:info{{@|12px}}wikimedia.ch
| yes<ref>A small no profit association doesn't require the formal approval. It's sufficient to follow the law and to have a bylaws compliant with to the law[http://www.cagi.ch/en/service-ong/creation-transfert/creation-dune-association.php][http://www.cagi.ch/en/service-ong/modele-de-statuts.php]. The tax exemption has been formally approved [http://members.wikimedia.ch/Tax].</ref>
| 2013-02-06
| 129
| CHF 50<br />Reduced: CHF 20<br />Sponsors: min. CHF 75<br />Legal entities: min. CHF 100
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-cl.png]] cl
| [[Wikimedia Chile]]
| 2011-07-16 (''2011-06-13'')
| [[Wikimedia Chile/Bylaws|es, en]]
| W: [http://www.wikimediachile.cl wikimediachile.cl]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/wikimedia_cl @wikimedia_cl]<br />F: [http://www.facebook.com/pages/Wikimedia-Chile/124677190900995 Wikimedia Chile]
| [[mail:wikimedia-cl|Wikimedia-CL]]
| M:contacto{{@|12px}}wikimediachile.cl
| yes
| 2011-07-16
| 026
| CLP 12,600 (USD 26.25)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-cz.png]] cz
| [[Wikimedia Czech Republic|Wikimedia Česká republika]]
| 2008-03-06<br />(''2008-02-26'')
| [[Wikimedia Czech Republic/Bylaws|cs]], [[Wikimedia Czech Republic/Bylaws/en|en]]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.cz wikimedia.cz]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/Wikimedia_CR @Wikimedia_CR]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/Wikimedia.CR Facebook]
| [[mail:wikimediacz-l|WikimediaCZ-l]]
| M:wm-cz{{@|12px}}wikimedia.org<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-cz|#wikimedia-cz]]
| yes<ref>All associations are non-profit by definition in the Czech republic.</ref>
| 2012-01-26
| 39
| CZK 200<br />reduced: CZK 100
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-de.png]] de
| [[Wikimedia Deutschland]]
| 2004-06-13
| '''[http://wikimedia.de/satzung.html de] (official), [http://wikimedia.de/wiki/Satzung/en en], [[Wikimedia Deutschland/Satzung/Italiano|it]]'''
| W:[http://wikimedia.de wikimedia.de]<br />I:[http://identi.ca/wikimediade @wikimediade]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wikimediade @wikimediade]<br />F:[https://www.facebook.com/WMDEeV WMDEeV]
| [[mail:vereinde-l|vereinde-l]]
| M:info{{@|12px}}wikimedia.de
| yes
| 2013-03-31
| 6,200+ <!--(1,507 active, 3,785 supporters, 1 honorary)-->
| €24<br />reduced: €12<br /><small>Min. fees, members may choose to pay more.</small>
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-dk.png]] dk
| [[Wikimedia Danmark]]
| 2009-03-14 (''2009-07-03'').
| [[Wikimedia Danmark/vedtægter dansk|da]], [[Wikimedia Danmark/vedtægter engelsk|en]]
| W:[[Wikimedia Danmark]]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wikimediadk @wikimediadk]
| [[mail:WikimediaDK|WikimediaDK]]
| U:[[User:Palnatoke|Palnatoke]]<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-danmark|#wikimedia-danmark]]
| ?
| 2010-09-26
| 015
| DKK 100
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ee.png]] ee
| [[Wikimedia Eesti]]
| 2010-07-25/<br />2010-10-06<br />''(2010-08-31)''
| [//et.wikimedia.org/wiki/P%C3%B5hikiri et], [//et.wikimedia.org/wiki/Bylaws en]
| [http://et.wikimedia.org et.wikimedia.org]
| [http://groups.google.com/group/wikimedia-eesti Google Group]
| U:[[:et:Kasutaja:Oop|Oop]]<br />M:wm-ee@wikimedia.org
| yes
| 2012-08-6
| 009 (founders), 031 (current)
| 5 €
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-es.png]] es
| [[Wikimedia España]]
| 2011-02-11<br />''(2011-02-07)''
| [[Wikimedia España/Borrador de estatutos|es]], [[Wikimedia España/Borrador de estatutos/en|en]]
| W: [http://www.wikimedia.org.es wikimedia.org.es]<br />I: [http://identi.ca/wikimediaes wikimediaes]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/wikimedia_es @wikimedia_es]<br />F (group): [http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=424690225370&ref=ts Wikimedia España]<br />F (page): [https://www.facebook.com/pages/Wikimedia-Espa%C3%B1a/119520204768841 Wikimedia España]
| [https://listas.wikimedia.org.es/mailman/listinfo/anuncios Wikimedia-Es (open list)]<br />
| M:[mailto:info@wikimedia.org.es info]<br />O:[[Talk:Wikimedia España|Wikimedia España]]<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-es|#wikimedia-es]]
| yes<ref>All associations in Spain have Non profit status.</ref>
| 2012-09-29
| 50~
| Registration fee: 5 €. Membership fee: Adults, 30 €; Young Adults (16-18 yrs): free.
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-fi.png]] fi
| [[Wikimedia Suomi]]
| 2009-06-14<br />(''2009-09-21'').
| [http://wikimedia.fi/view/Säännöt fi] [http://wikimedia.fi/view/The_bylaws_of_Wikimedia_Suomi (en)]
| W:[http://wikimedia.fi/view/ wikimedia.fi]
| [//lists.wikimedia.org/mailman/listinfo/wikimedia-fi Wikimedia-FI]
| M:info{{@|12px}}wikimedia.fi<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-fi|#wikimedia-fi]]
| ?
| 2010-09-25
| 021
| € 10<br />reduced: € 5
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-fr.png]] fr
| [[Wikimédia France]]
| 2004-10-23
| '''[http://wikimedia.fr/statuts-de-lassociation fr]'''
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.fr wikimedia.fr]<br />I:[http://identi.ca/wikimediafrance @wikimediafrance]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/Wikimedia_Fr @Wikimedia_Fr]
| [[mail:wikimediafr-l|wikimediafr-l]]
| M:contact{{@|12px}}wikimedia.fr<br />I:[[irc:#wikimedia-fr|#wikimedia-fr]]
| yes
| 2012-01-25
| 400
| normal : 24 €<br />honorary : 100 €
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-hk.png]] hk
| [[Wikimedia Hong Kong]]
| 2007-07-14<br />(''2008-03-04'')
| MoA: [[Wikimedia Hong Kong/香港維基媒體協會組織章程大綱|zh]], [[Wikimedia Hong Kong/Memorandum of Association|en]], AoA: [[Wikimedia Hong Kong/香港維基媒體協會組織章程細則|zh]], [[Wikimedia Hong Kong/Articles of Association|en]]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.hk wikimedia.hk]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/WMHK @WMHK]<br/>F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaHK WikimediaHK]
| [[mail:wikimediahk|wikimediahk]]
| U:[[User:Tsugiko|Tango Chan]]<br />O:[[Wikimedia Hong Kong/Contact]]
| yes
| 2010-09-12
| 040
| $50 HKD<br />$70 HKD (first year)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-hu.png]] hu
| [[Wikimédia Magyarország]]
| 2008-09-27<br />(''2008-11-03'')
| [[Wikimédia Magyarország/Alapszabály|hu]], [[Wikimédia Magyarország/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.hu/ wikimedia.hu]<br />I:[http://identi.ca/wikimediahu @wikimediahu]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/WikimediaHU @wikimediaHU]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaHU WikimediaHU]
| [http://groups.google.com/group/huwiki-egyesulet Google Group]
| M:[mailto:elnokseg@wikimedia.hu elnokseg]<br />U:[[:hu:User:Vince|Vince]] (Executive Vice President)
| yes<ref>Wikimédia Magyarország is a registered association at the Court and all registered associations are non-profit by definition in Hungary. Wikimédia Magyarország is recognized as "organization for the public benefit" status which means: transparency requirements, tax exemptions, tax deductibility etc.</ref>
| 2012-01-25
| 060
| 2000 HUF (~7€, 9$)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-id.png]] id
| [[Wikimedia Indonesia]]
| 2008-09-05<br />(''2008-10-07'')
| Bylaws: [http://www.wikimedia.or.id/wiki/Anggaran_Rumah_Tangga id], [[Wikimedia Indonesia/Bylaws/en|en]]<br/>AoI: [http://www.wikimedia.or.id/wiki/Anggaran_Dasar id], [[Wikimedia Indonesia/Articles of Incorporation/en|en]]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.or.id wikimedia.or.id]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/#!/wikimediaid @wikimediaid]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/wikimedia.indonesia wikimedia.indonesia]
| [http://groups.google.com/group/wikimedia-indonesia/about Google Group]
| M:[mailto:info@wikimedia.or.id Info]
| n/a
| 2012-01-30
| 19 (founders)<br /> 27 (members)
| IDR 250K (~USD 23) for public<br />IDR 150K (~USD 14) concession<br />IDR 100K (~USD 9) for students 17-20 years old.<ref>Based on [http://wikimedia.or.id/wiki/Rapat_Dewan_Pengurus/2012-01-27 Wikimedia Indonesia Board of Executive Meeting].</ref>
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-il.png]] il
| [[Wikimedia Israel]]
| 2007-07-15<br />(''2007-03-06'')
| [//il.wikimedia.org/wiki/%D7%AA%D7%A7%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%9F_%D7%94%D7%A2%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%AA%D7%94 he]&nbsp;(legally binding), [[Wikimedia Israel/Bylaws/en|en]]
| W:[http://www.wikimedia.org.il wikimedia.org.il]
| [[mail:Wikimedia-il|Wikimedia-il]]
| M: [mailto:mail@wikimedia.org.il mail]
| yes
| 2012-01-11
| ~35
| 20 ILS(~7 USD / 4 €)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-in.png]] in
| [[Wikimedia India]]
| 2011-01-03 <br />(''June 2010'')
| [http://wiki.wikimedia.in/images/2/20/ChapterRegDocsEnglish.pdf en] [http://wiki.wikimedia.in/images/f/f1/ChapterRegDocsKannada.pdf kn]
| W:[http://wiki.wikimedia.in Wiki.wikimedia.in] T:[http://twitter.com/Wikimediaindia @Wikimediaindia]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaIndia WikimediaIndia] <br /> IRC : [irc://irc.freenode.org/wikimedia-in #wikimedia-in]
| [//lists.wikimedia.org/mailman/listinfo/Wikimediaindia-l Wikimediaindia-l] (Community) <br /> [http://groups.google.com/group/wmin-members wmin-members (Members only)]
| M: [mailto:chapter@wikimedia.in Chapter] - [mailto:press@wikimedia.in Press] - [[mail:wikimedia-in-exec|Board]] <br /> U: [[User:Naveenpf|Naveen Francis]], Secretary ([mailto:naveenpf@wikimedia.in mail]) <br /> [[User talk:Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington|Anirudh Bhati]] ([mailto:anirudh@wikimedia.in mail])
| yes<ref> Wikimedia India chapter ( Registered Name: Wikimedia Chapter) is registered as a Non-profit Society vide Registrar of Societies, Bangalore Urban District. However applications to tax-exemption for the society and its donors are still pending. </ref>
| 2011-01-14
| 197
| 100 INR or ~US$2 (individuals)/ 1000 INR or ~US$20 (organisations)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-it.png]] it
| [[Wikimedia Italia]]
| 2005-07-17
| [[Wikimedia Italia/bylaws|it, en]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.it wikimedia.it]<br />I:[http://identi.ca/wikimediaitalia @WikimediaItalia]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wikimediaitalia @WikimediaItalia]
| associazione{{@|11px}}wikimedia.it
| U:[[it:Utente:Frieda|Frieda]] (chair)<br />U:[[it:Utente:Marcok|Marcok]]<br />M:info{{@|11px}}wikimedia.it (info whatsoever)
| yes
| 2011-01-08
| ~350
| 25 € <small>(members removed after a year if they don't renew the subscription)</small>
|- valign=top
| [[Image:Icons-flag-mk.png]] mk
| [[Wikimedia Macedonia]]
| 2009-09-21<br />(''2010-02-01'')
| [[Викимедија Македонија/Статут|mk]], [[Wikimedia Macedonia/Statute|en]]
| W: [http://mk.wikimedia.org mk.wikimedia.org]<br />T: [https://twitter.com/wikipedia_mk @wikipedia_mk]<br />F: [http://www.facebook.com/mk.wikipedia mk.wikipedia] & <br />[http://www.facebook.com/wikimediamacedonia wikimediamacedonia]
|
[https://lists.wikimedia.org/mailman/listinfo/wikimedia-mk wikimedia-mk] (members)
|
M: [https://lists.softver.org.mk/listinfo/vikipedija vikipedija] (admins) <br/>
M: [https://lists.wikimedia.org/mailman/listinfo/wikimk-l Wikimk-I] (wikipedians) <br/>
U: [[User:brest|brest]] (President)
| yes
| 2011-09-18
| 014
| None
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-mo.png]] mo
| [[Wikimedia Macau]]
| 2009-04-09<br>(''2011-04-24'')
| en:[[Wikimedia_Macau/Charter/en/20110128|Charter]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.org.mo/ Website] <br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_57936815676 Wikimedia Macau]
|
| M: [mailto:info@wikimedia.org.mo info]
| ?
| 2011-05-07
|
|
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-mx.png]] mx
| [[Wikimedia México]]
| 2011-08-03<br />(''2011-08-03'')<ref>At the founding team's request, the provisional approval was extended by the WMF executive director until April 2013.</ref>
| [[Wikimedia México/Bylaws|Bylaws]]
| [[Wikimedia México|Wikimedia México on Meta]] (es/en)
| [[mail:wikimedia-mx]]
| [[User:ProtoplasmaKid]]<br/> [irc://irc.freenode.net/#wikimedia-mx #wikimedia-mx] <br/> or [[Talk:Wikimedia México]]
| yes<ref>Officialy recognized as Wikimedia México A.C. (civic association) under mexican laws since February 2013</ref>
| 2013-02-8
| 15
| Pending for define.
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-nl.png]] nl
| [[Wikimedia Nederland]]
| 2006-03-27<br />(''2006-09-21'')
| [[nl:chapter:Statuten_VWN|AoI]], [[nl:chapter:Reglement_VWN|Bylaws]] (en/nl)
| W:[http://wikimedia.nl/ wikimedia.nl]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/wmnl @wmnl]
| [[mail:wikimedianl-l|wikimedianl-l]]
| General inquiries:<br />M:info{{@|12px}}wikimedia.nl<br />U:[[nl:chapter:user:Ziko|Ziko]] (chair)
| yes<ref>There is no separate official non-profit status. However, we have been granted charity status (ANBI) by the tax office since January 2010, which, among other demands, requires that the organization is a non-profit by its bylaws and operates as a non-profit in practice. During 2012 we were busy to prepare the chapter for the CBF certificate for 'small charities'.</ref>
| 2013-01
| 200
| € 24 recommended<br />(Members may choose less or more, min. € 12)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-no.png]] no
| [[Wikimedia Norge]]
| 2007-06-23<br />(''2008-11-03'')
| [[Wikimedia Norge/Vedtekter|nb]], [[Wikimedia Norge/Vedtekter (nynorsk)|nn]], [[Wikimedia Norge/Njuolggadusat|se]], [[Wikimedia Norge/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[//no.wikimedia.org/ no.wikimedia.org]<br />T:[http://twitter.com/Wikimedianorge @Wikimedianorge]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaNorge WikimediaNorge]
| [[mail:wikimedia-no|Wikimedia-no]]
| U:[[:no:user:Jon Harald Søby|Jon Harald Søby]] (chairman)<br />U:[[:no:user:bjoertvedt|Erling Bjørtvedt]] (deputy chairman)<br />O:[//no.wikimedia.org/wiki/About_us Short presentation in English]
| ?
| 2013-04-22
| ~100
| Ordinary: 200 NOK<br />reduced: 100 NOK
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ph.png]] ph
| [[Wikimedia Philippines]]
| 2010-04-12<br />(2010-03-17)
| [[Wikimedia Philippines/Articles of Incorporation|en]], [[Wikimedia Philippines/Articles of Incorporation/tl|tl]] (Articles)<br>[[Wikimedia Philippines/By-laws|en]] (Bylaws)
| W:[http://wikimedia.org.ph wikimedia.org.ph]<br/ >I:[http://identi.ca/pinoywikipedia @pinoywikipedia]<br/ >T:[http://twitter.com/WikimediaPH @WikimediaPH]<br/ >F:[http://www.facebook.com/wikimediaphilippines Wikimedia Ph]
| [[mail:wikimedia-ph|Wikimedia-PH]]
| M:[mailto:info@wikimedia.org.ph Info]<br />U:[[User:Seav|Eugene]] (President) <br />U:[[User:Exec8|Butch]] (Vice President)
| yes<ref>Wikimedia Philippines is applying for NGO accreditation and donee institution status (charitable status).</ref>
| 2013-02-01
| 93[http://www.wikimedia.org.ph/wmph/index.php?title=Membership]
| PHP 500 (regular)<br />PHP 100 (concession)<br /><small>Non-paying members are Associate members, without voting privileges.</small>
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-pl.png]] pl
| [[Wikimedia Polska]]
| 2005-08-14
| [//pl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Statut pl], [//pl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Statut/en en]
| W:[http://pl.wikimedia.org pl.wikimedia.org]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/#!/wikipedia_pl @wikimedia_pl]<br />F: [http://www.facebook.com/#!/polska.wikipedia polska.wikipedia]
| [[mail:wikimediapl-l|wikimediapl-l]]
| I:[[irc:#wikimedia-pl|#wikimedia-pl]]<br />M:zarzad{{@|12px}}wikimedia.pl
| n/a<ref>All associations are non-profit by definition in Poland</ref>
| 2010-03-13
| 107 [//pl.wikimedia.org/wiki/Lista_cz%C5%82onk%C3%B3w list]
| 1 PLN (0.2 USD) min. Members may choose to pay more: average is ~ 20 PLN / 5 USD
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-pt.png]] pt
| [[Wikimedia Portugal]]
| 2009-09-21 (''2009-07-03'')
| [http://wikimedia.pt Estatutos pt, en]
| W: [http://wikimedia.pt wikimedia.pt]<br>
T: [http://twitter.com/wikimediapt @wikimediapt]<br>
I: [http://identi.ca/wikimediapt @wikimediapt]<br>
F: [http://www.facebook.com/pages/Wikimedia-Portugal/178878543899 Wikimedia Portugal]
| [[mail:wikimediapt|wikimediapt]]
| I:{{channel|wikimedia-pt}}<br />M:geral{{@|11px}}wikimedia.pt<br /> O: [http://wikimedia.pt/Contacto Contacto]
| yes<ref>All organizations in Portugal have Non profit status.</ref>
| 2011-03-01
| 030~
| 10€<br />reduced: € 5
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-rs.png]] rs
| [[Wikimedia Serbia|Wikimedia Србије]]
| 2005-12-03
| [//rs.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikimedia:%D0%A1%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%83%D1%82 sr] ([[Wikimedia Serbia/Statut/српски|copy]]), [[Wikimedia Serbia/Statut/English|en]]
| W:[http://rs.wikimedia.org rs.wikimedia.org]
| [[mail:wikimediasr-l|wikimediasr-l]]<br>[[mail:serbia-internal-l|serbia-internal-l]] (internal)
| U:[[User:Dungodung|dungodung]]<br>M:[mailto:info-rs@wikimedia.org info-rs]
| n/a<ref>All associations are non-profit by definition in Serbia.</ref>
| 2011-09-24
| 080~
| None
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ru.png]] ru
| [[Wikimedia Russia|Викимедиа РУ]], Wikimedia&nbsp;RU
| 2008-11-11<br />(''2008-05-24'')
| [[Wikimedia Russia/Устав|ru]] [[Wikimedia Russia/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.ru wikimedia.ru]
| [[mail:wikimediaru-l|wikimediaru-l]]
| U:[[:ru:User:Ctac|Ctac]]<br />U:[[:ru:User:Drbug|Dr Bug]]
| yes
| 2013-05-17
| 016
| 1200 RUB
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-se.png]] se
| [[Wikimedia Sverige]]
| 2007-10-20<br />(''2007-12-11'')
| [[Wikimedia Sverige/Stadgar|sv]], [[Wikimedia Sverige/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[[Wmse:|wikimedia.se]]<br />T:[https://twitter.com/WikimediaSE @WikimediaSE] <br />F: [http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaSverige Wikimedia Sverige]
| [[mail:wikimediase-l|wikimediase-l]]
| M:[mailto:jan.ainali@wikimedia.org Jan Ainali] <br/> M:[mailto:info@wikimedia.se Info] - [mailto:press@wikimedia.se Press]
| yes
| 2010-11-19
| 226
| SEK 100 / EUR 10 / USD 15<br />Organisations: 1000 SEK
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-tw.png]] tw
| [[Wikimedia Taiwan]]
| 2007-02-11<br />(''2007-07-04'')
| [[Wikimedia Taiwan/章程|zh]], [[Wikimedia Taiwan/章程/EN|en]]
| W:[http://wikimedia.tw wikimedia.tw]
| Google group, [[mail:wikimedia-tw|wikimedia-tw]]
| U:[[User talk:Theodoranian|Theodoranian]] (Chair)<br />U:[[User talk:Htchien|Htchien]] (Secretariat)
| ?
| 2007-07-04
| 030
|
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ua.png]] ua
| [[Wikimedia Ukraine]]
| 2009-05-31<br/>(''2009-07-03'')
| [[Wikimedia Ukraine/Статут|uk]], [[Wikimedia Ukraine/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[http://ua.wikimedia.org ua.wikimedia.org]<br/>
F:[http://www.facebook.com/Wikimedia.Ukraina Вікімедіа Україна]
| [[mail:WikimediaUA|WikimediaUA]]
| M:[[mail:WikimediaUA|WikimediaUA]]<br />M:wm-ua{{@|12px}}wikimedia.org
| ?
| 2010-05-03
| 023
| 10 UAH (1 €) min
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-gb.png]] gb
| [[Wikimedia UK]]
| 2008-11-05<br />(''2009-01-12'')
| [[Wikimedia_UK_v2.0/Constitution|en]]
| W: [http://wikimedia.org.uk wikimedia.org.uk]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/wikimediauk @wikimediauk]<br />F: [http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaUK WikimediaUK]
| [[mail:wikimediauk-l|wikimediauk-l]]
| M: secretary{{@|11px}}wikimedia.org.uk<br />U: [[User:Mike Peel]]
| UK charity
| 2012-02-17
| 360~
| GBP 5
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-us.png]] us-dc
| [[Wikimedia District of Columbia]]
| 2011-05-07<br/>(''2011-09-12'')
| [[Wikimedia DC/Bylaws|en]]
| W: [http://wikimediadc.org wikimediadc.org]<br/>
T: [http://twitter.com/wikimediadc @wikimediadc]
|[[mail:wikimedia-dc|wikimedia-dc]]
|M: info{{@|11px}}wikidc.org<br/>
U: [[User:Aude]]<br/>
I: #wikimedia-northeast
| yes
| 2011-11-13
| 043
| USD 10
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-us.png]] us-nyc
| [[Wikimedia New York City]]
| 2009-07-07<br/>(''2009-01-12'')
| [[Wikimedia New York City/Bylaws|en]]
| W:[http://nyc.wikimedia.org nyc.wikimedia.org]<br/>T: [http://twitter.com/wikimedianyc @wikimedianyc]
| [[mail:Wikimedia_NYC|Wikimedia NYC]]
| U:[[User:Pharos|Pharos]],<br />M:wm-nyc{{@|12px}}wikimedia.org<br/>I: #wikimedia-northeast
| yes
| 2012-05-14
| 035
| USD 5
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-ve.png]] ve
| [[Wikimedia Venezuela]]
| 2012-02-14<br/>(''2011-10-28'')
| [http://www.wikimedia.org.ve/index.php/Estatutos es], [http://wikimedia.org.ve/index.php/Bylaws/Borrador en]
| W: [http://www.wikimedia.org.ve wikimedia.org.ve]<br />T: [http://twitter.com/wikimedia_ve @wikimedia_ve]<br />F: [https://www.facebook.com/Wikimedia.Venezuela?ref=tn_tnmn Wikimedia.Venezuela]
| M: [https://wikimedia-ve@lists.wikimedia.org Wikimedia-VE]
| I: [irc://irc.freenode.net/wikimedia-ve #wikimedia-ve]<br />U: [[User:Oscar_.|Oscar]] ([mailto:oscar@wikimedia.org.ve mail])<br />U: [[User:Jewbask|Carlos]] ([mailto:jewbask@wikimedia.org.ve mail])<br />U: [[User:Fhaidel|Fhaidel]] ([mailto:fhaidel@wikimedia.org.ve mail])
| yes
| 2013-04-27
| 019
| 214 Bs (~USD 34)
|-
| [[Image:Icons-flag-za.png]] za
| [[Wikimedia South Africa]]
| 2012-02-27<br />(''2011-03-26'')
|
| W:[http://wikimedia.org.za/wiki/Main_Page wikimedia.org.za]<br />F:[http://www.facebook.com/WikimediaZA Wikimedia ZA]
| [https://lists.wikimedia.org/mailman/listinfo/wikimediaza Wikimedia-ZA]
| [[Talk:Wikimedia South Africa|Wikimedia South Africa]]
| yes
| 2010-08-08
|
|
|}
<noinclude>
 
When no watercourses were available, laundry was done in water-tight vats or vessels. Sometimes large metal cauldrons were filled with fresh water and heated over a fire; boiling water was even more effective than cold in removing dirt. Wooden or stone scrubbing surfaces set up near a water supply or portable washboards, including factory-made corrugated metal ones, gradually replaced rocks as a surface for loosening soil.
== Sumbangan ==
Wikimedia menerima sumbangan uang di [http://wikimediafoundation.org/fundraising halaman penggalangan dana]. Sekarang ini sumbangan bisa diberikan secara elektronis lewat [[PayPal]] atau dikirim per pos.
[[Berkas:St Pete meetup - Wikimedia Foundation Board1.jpg|thumb|right|Lembaga Yayasan Wikimedia di [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Meetup/St._Petersburg2 Pertemuan Wikipedia di St. Petersburg pada 17 Januari 2006]: [[Tim Shell]], [[Wikimedia:Lembaga Pemegang Amanah#Michael Davis|Michael Davis]], [[Jimmy Wales]], dan [[Angela Beesley]].]]
 
A [[posser]] could be used to agitate clothes in a tub.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.oldandinteresting.com/laundry-ponches-punches.aspx |title=Ponch, punch or ? |publisher=OldandInteresting.com |accessdate=2014-03-06}}</ref>
== Referensi ==
{{reflist}}
 
Once clean, the clothes were wrung out — twisted to remove most of the water. Then they were hung up on poles or clotheslines to air dry, or sometimes just spread out on clean grass.
[[Berkas:Tampilan Wikimedia.png|thumb|Tampilan situs Wikimedia.org]]
== Pranala luar ==
* {{en}} [http://wikimediafoundation.org/ Situs web resmi Wikimedia Foundation]
* {{id}} [http://www.wikimedia.web.id/ Situs web Wikimedia Indonesia]
* {{en}} [http://www.sunbiz.org/COR/2003/0620/90039369.tif Corporate Charter of Wikimedia Foundation Inc.] two page *.tif file located on Florida Department of State, Divisions of Corporations web site
* {{en}} [http://www.sunbiz.org/scripts/cordet.exe?a1=DETFIL&n1=N03000005323&n2=NAMFWD&n3=0000&n4=N&r1=&r2=&r3=&r4=WIKIMEDIA&r5= Public Record for Wikimedia Foundation Inc.] from Florida Department of State web site
* {{en}} [http://mail.wikipedia.org/pipermail/wikipedia-l/2003-June/010690.html Announcement of Wikimedia's founding]
* {{en}} [[m:Wikimedia|Wikimedia's meta page]]
* {{en}} [http://mail.wikipedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/2003-March/001878.html Sheldon Rampton's WikiEN-l post]
{{Wikimedia}}
{{Yayasan Wikimedia}}
{{Seputar Wikipedia}}
 
=== Washhouses ===
[[Kategori:Wikimedia| ]]
[[File:Brogi, Carlo (1850-1925) - n. 12182 - Sanremo - Popolane al lavatojo.jpg|thumb|Washhouse in [[Sanremo]], [[Italy]], at about the turn of the 20th century. Photograph by Carlo Brogi]]
[[File:Tanque das Lavandeiras - comunitario II.jpg|thumb|Washhouse in [[Cabeção]], [[Portugal]], today. Observe the two basins and inclined stone lip]]
Before the advent of the [[washing machine]], apart from [[watercourse]]s, laundry was also done in communal or public washhouses (also called wash-houses or wash houses), especially in rural areas in [[Europe]] or the [[Mediterranean Basin]]. Water was channelled from a [[river]] or [[spring (hydrology)|spring]] and fed into a building or outbuilding built specifically for laundry purposes and often containing two basins - one for washing and the other for rinsing - through which the water was constantly flowing, as well as a stone lip inclined towards the water against which the washers could beat the clothes. Such facilities were much more comfortable than washing in a watercourse because the launderers could work standing up instead of on their knees, and were protected from inclement weather by walls (often) and a roof (with some exceptions). Also, they didn't have to go far, as the facilities were usually at hand in the village or at the edge of a town. These facilities were public and available to all families, and usually used by the entire village. The laundry job was reserved for women, who washed all their family's laundry (or the laundry of others as a paid job). As such, washhouses were an obligatory stop in many women's weekly lives and became a sort of institution or meeting place for women in towns or villages, where they could discuss issues or simply chat, equated by many with gossip, and equatable to the concept of the [[village pump]] in English. Indeed, this tradition is reflected in the [[Catalan language|Catalan]] idiom "''fer safareig''" (literally, "to do the laundry"), which means to gossip, for instance.
 
Many of these washhouses are still standing and even filled with water in villages throughout [[Europe]]. In cities (in [[Europe]] as of the 19th century), public washhouses were also built so that the poorer population, who would otherwise not have access to laundry facilities, could wash their clothes. The aim was to foster hygiene and thus reduce outbreaks of epidemics.
 
=== The Industrial Revolution ===
 
The [[Industrial Revolution]] completely transformed laundry technology.
 
The [[mangle (machine)|mangle]] (or "wringer"in [[American English]]) was developed in the 19th century — two long rollers in a frame and a crank to revolve them. A laundry-worker took sopping wet clothing and cranked it through the mangle, compressing the cloth and expelling the excess water. The mangle was much quicker than hand twisting. It was a variation on the [[box mangle]] used primarily for pressing and smoothing cloth.
 
Meanwhile, 19th century inventors further mechanized the laundry process with various hand-operated [[washing machine]]s. Most involved turning a handle to move paddles inside a tub. Then some early 20th century machines used an electrically powered [[agitator (device)|agitator]] to replace tedious hand rubbing against a washboard. Many of these were simply a tub on legs, with a hand-operated mangle on top. Later the mangle too was electrically powered, then replaced by a perforated double tub, which spun out the excess water in a spin cycle.
 
'''
Laundry drying was also mechanized, with [[clothes dryer]]s. Dryers were also spinning perforated tubs, but they blew heated air rather than water.'''
 
=== Chinese laundries in North America ===
{{See also|Yick Wo v. Hopkins}}
 
In the [[United States]] and [[Canada]] in the late 19th and early 20th century, the occupation of laundry worker was heavily identified with [[Chinese American]]s. Discrimination, lack of English-language skills, and lack of [[capital (economics)|capital]] kept Chinese Americans out of most desirable careers. Around 1900, one in four ethnic Chinese men in the U.S. worked in a laundry, typically working 10 to 16 hours a day.<ref name=CHLA>"{{citation|chapter=Declaration of the Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance.|pages=183–185 (including notes)|editor1-first=Judy|editor1-last=Yung|editor2-first=Gordon H.|editor2-last=Chang|editor3-first=Him Mark|editor3-last=Lai|title=Chinese American Voices|publisher=[[University of California Press]]|year=2006|isbn=0-520-24310-2}}</ref><ref>{{citation|author=Ban Seng Hoe <!-- not using First and Last as this is pure Chinese name, not sure if appropriate -->|title=Enduring Hardship: The Chinese Laundry in Canada|publisher=Canadian Museum of Civilization|year=2004|isbn=0-660-19078-8}}</ref>
 
[[New York City]] had an estimated 3,550 Chinese laundries at the beginning of the [[Great Depression]] of the 1930s. In 1933, with even this looking to many people like a relatively desirable business, the city's Board of Aldermen passed a law clearly intended to drive the Chinese out of the business. Among other things, it limited ownership of laundries to U.S. citizens. The [[Chinese Six Companies#New York|Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association]] tried fruitlessly to fend this off, resulting in the formation of the openly [[left-wing politics|leftist]] [[Chinese Hand Laundry Alliance]] (CHLA), which successfully challenged this provision of the law, allowing Chinese laundry workers to preserve their livelihoods.<ref name=CHLA />
 
The CHLA went on to function as a more general [[civil rights]] group; its numbers declined strongly after it was targeted by the [[FBI]] during the [[Red Scare#'Second Red Scare' (1947–1957)|Second Red Scare]] (1947–1957).<ref name=CHLA />
 
==Laundry processes==
Laundry processes include washing (usually with water containing detergents or other chemicals), agitation, rinsing, drying and pressing (ironing). The washing will often be done at a temperature above room temperature to increase the activities of any chemicals used and the solubility of stains, and high temperatures kill micro-organisms that may be present on the fabric.
 
===Chemicals===
 
Various chemicals may be used to increase the solvent power of water, such as the compounds in [[soaproot]] or yucca-root used by Native American tribes, or the ash [[lye]] once widely used for soaking laundry in Europe. [[Soap]], a compound made from lye and [[fat]], is an ancient and common laundry aid. Modern [[washing machine]]s typically use synthetic powdered or liquid [[laundry detergent]] in place of more traditional soap.
 
===Cleaning or Dry cleaning===
{{main|Dry cleaning}}
Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for [[clothing]] and [[textile]]s using a chemical [[solvent]] other than [[water]].<ref>{{cite web|title=How Does The Dry Cleaning Process Work?|url=http://www.laundroxpress.com/dry-cleaning-process-work/|publisher=LX|accessdate=21 November 2014|quote=Dry cleaning is the process of deep cleaning clothing without using water. Usually reserved for dress clothes and delicate fabric, it requires special equipment and detergents. Dry cleaning is typically a 5 step process. These steps are tagging the clothes, pretreating clothes, cleaning, quality checking, and ironing.}}</ref> The solvent used is typically [[tetrachloroethylene]] (perchloroethylene), which the industry calls "perc".<ref>{{cite web|title=Toxic Substances Portal - Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)|url=http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=264&tid=48|accessdate=21 November 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)|url=http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/tet-ethy.html|accessdate=21 November 2014}}</ref> It is used to clean delicate fabrics that cannot withstand the rough and tumble of a [[washing machine]] and [[clothes dryer]]; it can also obviate labor-intensive hand washing.
 
[[Image:Dry clean rack.jpg|thumb|Many dry cleaners place cleaned clothes inside thin clear plastic garment bags.]]
 
== Laundry hygiene ==
For laundry hygiene see under [[hygiene]].
 
== Apartments ==
In some parts of the world, including North America, [[apartment building]]s and [[dormitory|dormitories]] often have laundry rooms, where residents share washing machines and dryers. Usually the machines are set to run only when money is put in a [[Currency detector|coin slot]].
 
In other parts of the world, including Europe, apartment buildings with laundry rooms are uncommon, and each apartment may have its own washing machine. Those without a machine at home or the use of a laundry room must either wash their clothes by hand or visit a commercial [[self-service laundry]].
 
== Right to dry movement==
[[File:NewBritainUnderwearWashingDirections.jpg|thumb|250px|Directions for hand-washing New Britain Standard Hygienic Underwear, circa 1915]]
 
Some organizations have been campaigning against legislation which has outlawed line-drying of clothing in public places, especially given the increased [[greenhouse gas]] emissions produced by clothes dryers.{{Citation needed|date=August 2009}}
 
Legislation making it possible for thousands of American families to start using clotheslines in communities where they were formerly banned was passed in Colorado in 2008. In 2009, clothesline legislation was debated in the states of Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Maine, New Hampshire, Nebraska, Oregon, Virginia, and Vermont. Other states{{which|date=September 2013}} are considering similar bills.{{clarify|date=September 2013}}{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}}
 
Many [[homeowners' associations]] and other communities in the United States prohibit residents from using a clothesline outdoors, or limit such use to locations that are not visible from the street or to certain times of day. Other communities, however, expressly prohibit rules that prevent the use of clotheslines. Florida is the only state to expressly guarantee a right to dry, although Utah and Hawaii have passed solar rights legislation.{{citation needed|date=September 2013}}
 
A Florida law explicitly states: "No deed restrictions, covenants, or similar binding agreements running with the land shall prohibit or have the effect of prohibiting solar collectors, clotheslines, or other energy devices based on renewable resources from being installed on buildings erected on the lots or parcels covered by the deed restrictions, covenants, or binding agreements."<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.flsenate.gov/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=Ch0163/SEC04.HTM&Title=-%3E2008-%3ECh0163-%3ESection%2004#0163.04|title=The 2008 Florida Statutes|chapter=Energy devices based on renewable resources|volume=163.04|year=2008|publisher=[[Florida Senate]]}}</ref> No other state has such clearcut legislation.{{Citation needed|date=November 2008}} Vermont considered a "Right to Dry" bill in 1999, but it was defeated in the Senate Natural Resources & Energy Committee. The language has been included in a 2007 voluntary [[energy conservation]] bill, introduced by Senator [[Dick McCormack]]. Similar measures have been introduced in Canada, in particular the province of Ontario.{{Citation needed|date=February 2010}}
 
== Common problems ==
Novice users of modern laundry machines sometimes experience accidental [[Shrinkage (fabric)|shrinkage]] of garments, especially when applying heat. For [[wool]] garments, this is due to scales on the fibers, which heat and agitation cause to stick together.
In cold countries they dry it with their fireplaces, others just have many or buy more garments in preparation for winter or cold times. Other fabrics are stretched by mechanical forces during production, and can shrink slightly when heated (though to a lesser degree than wool). Some clothes are "pre-shrunk" to avoid this problem.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=98759520|title=Why Clothes Shrink}}</ref>
 
Another common problem is color bleeding. For example, washing a red shirt with white underwear can result in [[pink]] underwear. Often only like colors are washed together to avoid this problem, which is lessened by cold water and repeated washings.
 
[[Laundry symbol]]s are included on many clothes to help consumers avoid these problems.
 
==Etymology==
The word ''laundry'' comes from [[Middle English]] lavendrye, laundry, from [[Old French]] ''lavanderie'', from lavandier.<ref name="Laundry"/>
 
==See also==
* [[List of laundry topics]]
 
== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}
 
== External links ==
{{Sister project links |wikt=laundry |commons=Category:Laundry |b=Laundry_separation_and_washing |n=no |q=no |s=no |v=no |voy=Laundry |species=no |d=no |display=Laundry }}
 
{{Laundry navbox}}
{{Clothing}}
{{Authority control}}
 
[[Category:Laundry|*]]
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