Kegemukan: Perbedaan revisi

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==Kesehatan masyarakat==
[[Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia]] (WHO) memperkirakan bahwa [[kelebihan berat badan]] dan kegemukan dalam waktu dekat akan menggantikan masalah [[kesehatan masyarakat]] seperti [[kekurangan gizi]] dan [[penyakit menular]] sebagai penyebab utama kesehatan yang buruk.<ref>{{cite book |author=Loscalzo, Joseph; Fauci, Anthony S.; Braunwald, Eugene; Dennis L. Kasper; Hauser, Stephen L; Longo, Dan L. |title=Harrison's principles of internal medicine |publisher=McGraw-Hill Medical |location=|year=2008 |pages= |isbn=0-07-146633-9 |oclc=|doi= |accessdate=}}</ref> Kegemukan menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat dan masalah kebijakan karena prevalensi, biaya, dan pengaruhnya terhadap kesehatan.<ref>{{cite book | author=Satcher D | title=The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity | year=2001 | publisher=U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Surgeon General | url=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44206/|isbn=978-0-16-051005-2}}</ref>
Kesehatan masyarakat berupaya memahami dan memperbaiki faktor lingkungan yang berperan dalam meningkatkan prevalensi kegemukan di masyarakat. Upaya yang dilakukan mencakup penyediaan makanan di sekolah yang dibiayai oleh pemerintah, membatasi pemasaran [[junk food]] secara langsung kepada anak-anak,<ref>{{cite news | author=Brook Barnes | title=Limiting Ads of Junk Food to Children |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/18/business/18food.html | work=New York Times | date=2007-07-18 |accessdate=2008-07-24}}</ref> dan mengurangi akses untuk mendapatkan minuman manis di sekolah.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.healthfinder.gov/news/newsstory.aspx?docID=625759 |title=Fewer Sugary Drinks Key to Weight Loss -healthfinder.gov|work=U.S. Department of Health and Human Services |accessdate=Oct 18,2009}}</ref> Untuk lingkungan perkotaan, berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan akses ke taman-taman dan mengembangkan jalur untuk pejalan kaki.<ref>{{cite journal | author=Brennan Ramirez LK | title=Indicators of activity-friendly communities: An evidence-based consensus process | journal=Am J Prev Med | year=2006 | month=December | issue=6 | pages=530–32 | pmid=17169714 | url=|doi=10.1016/j.amepre.2006.07.026 | volume=31 | author-separator=, | author2=Hoehner CM | author3=Brownson RC |display-authors=3 | last4=Cook | first4=R | last5=Orleans | first5=C | last6=Hollander | first6=M | last7=Barker |first7=D | last8=Bors | first8=P | last9=Ewing | first9=R}}</ref>
 
|alt=A map of the world with countries colored to reflect the percentage of men who are obese. Obese males and females have higher prevalence (above 30%) in the U.S. and some Middle Eastern and Oceanian countries, medium prevalence in the rest of North America and Europe, and lower prevalence (<5%) in most of Asia and Africa.||}}
 
Sebelum abad ke-20&nbsp;, kegemukan jarang ditemui;<ref name=Haslam2007/> tetapi pada 1997 WHO secara resmi menyatakan kegemukan sebagai epidemik global.<ref name=Caballero/> Hingga 2005, WHO memperkirakan sedikitnya 400&nbsp;juta orang dewasa (9,8%) mengalami kegemukan, dengan lebih banyak wanita dibandingkan pria.<ref name=WHO2009a>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html |title=Obesity and overweight |work=World Health Organization |accessdate=April 8, 2009}}</ref> Angka kegemukan juga naik dengan bertambahnya usia setidaknya hingga usia 50 sampai 60 &nbsp;tahun<ref>Seidell 2005 p.5</ref> dan kegemukan berat di Amerika Serikat, Australia, dan Kanada meningkat lebih cepat dibandingkan angka kegemukan secara keseluruhan.<ref name=morbid2007/><ref>{{cite journal |author=Howard, Natasha J.|title=Severe obesity: Investigating the socio-demographics within the extremes of body mass index |journal=Obesity Research &Clinical Practice |volume=2 |issue=1 |pages=51–59 |year=2008|month=March |pmid=|doi=10.1016/j.orcp.2008.01.001 |url= |first2=A |first3=T |first4=C |last2=Taylor |last3=Gill|last4=Chittleborough}}</ref><ref name=Tjepkema2005>{{cite book | author=Tjepkema M | chapter=Measured Obesity–Adult obesity in Canada: Measured height and weight | title=Nutrition: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey |publisher=Statistics Canada | date=2005-07-06 | location=Ottawa, Ontario |url=http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-620-m/2005001/article/adults-adultes/8060-eng.htm}}</ref>
 
Dahulu, kegemukan dianggap sebagai masalah negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi, namun saat ini angka kegemukan meningkat di seluruh dunia dan mempengaruhi baik dunia maju maupun dunia berkembang.<ref name=EuroG2008>{{cite journal |author=Tsigosa Constantine |title=Management of Obesity in Adults: European Clinical Practice Guidelines|journal=The European Journal of Obesity |volume=1 |year=2008|month=April |pmid= 20054170|doi=10.1159/000126822|url=http://www.gojaznost.org/gs/dodatak/OMTFManagementofObesityinAdults2008.pdf|first2=Vojtech |issue=2 |first3=Arnaud|first4=Nick |first5=Martin |first6=Elisabeth |first7=Dragan |first8=Maximo |first9=Gabriela |pages=106–16|last2=Hainer |last3=Basdevant |last4=Finer |last5=Fried |last6=Mathus-Vliegen |last7=Micic |last8=Maislos|last9=Roman}}</ref> Peningkatan ini dirasakan paling dramatis di daerah perkotaan.<ref name=WHO2009a/> Satu-satunya bagian dunia dimana kegemukan jarang ditemukan adalah di [[Afrika sub-sahara]].<ref name=HaslamJames/>
* Puhl R., Henderson K., and Brownell K. Konsekuensi sosial dari obesitas Dalam:{{cite book|author=Peter G. Kopelman, Ian D. Caterson, Michael J. Stock, William H. Dietz|title=Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|location= |year=2005|pages=29–45 |isbn=1-4051-1672-2|url=}}
* Seidell JC. Epidemiologi — definisi dan klasifikasi obesitas Dalam:{{cite book|author=Peter G. Kopelman, Ian D. Caterson, Michael J. Stock, William H. Dietz|title=Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|location= |year=2005|pages=3–11 |isbn=1-4051-1672-2|url=}}
* {{cite book | author=[[World Health Organization]] (WHO) | title=Technical report series 894: Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. | location=Geneva | publisher=World Health Organization | year=2000 |url=http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_894_(part1).pdf | format=PDF | isbn=92-4-120894-5}}
{{Refend}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
* {{dmoz|Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Nutritional_and_Metabolic_Disorders/Obesity/}}
* {{cite book |author=Fumento, Michael | authorlink=Michael Fumento | title=The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves |publisher=Penguin Books |location=New York |year=1997|isbn=0-14-026144-3}}
* {{cite book |author=Keller, Kathleen |title=Encyclopedia of Obesity |publisher=Sage Publications, Inc|location=Thousand Oaks, Calif |year=2008 |isbn=1-4129-5238-7 |oclc= |url=http://books.google.com/?id=aRp2rJrEqZsC&dq=IOTF+obesity+map|doi= |accessdate=}}
* {{cite book |author=Kolata, Gina | authorlink=Gina Kolata |title=Rethinking Thin: The new science of weight loss –and the myths and realities of dieting |publisher=Picador |location= |year=2007 |pages= |isbn=0-312-42785-9}}
* {{cite book|author=Kopelman, Peter G.|title=Clinical obesity in adults and children: In Adults and Children|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|location= |year=2005|page=493 |isbn=1-4051-1672-2|url=http://books.google.com/?id=u7RvldSr5M0C&pg=PA87&dq=80+percent+of+the+offspring+of+two+obese+parents+become+obese}}
* {{cite book |author=Levy-Navarro, Elena |title=The Culture of Obesity in Early and Late Modernity |publisher=Palgrave Macmillan |location= |year=2008 |pages= |isbn=0-230-60123-5}}
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