Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat: Perbedaan antara revisi

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Presiden Kongres [[John Hancock]] mengirim selebaran kepada [[Jenderal]] [[George Washington]], mengintruksikan kepadanya untuk berproklamasi "kepada Kepala Angkatan Darat dengan cara itu, kamu harus memikirkannya dengan yang paling tepat".<ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 155.</ref> Washington melakukan pembacaan Deklarasi tersebut kepada pasukannya di [[New York City|Kota New York]] pada 9 Juli, dengan pasukan Inggris yang tidak jauh darinya. Washington dan Kongres berharap Deklarasi akan menginspirasi para prajurit, dan mendorong orang lain untuk masuk tentara.<ref name="Maier156"/> <!--After hearing the Declaration, crowds in many cities tore down and destroyed signs or statues representing royalty. <ref>Maier, ''American Scripture'', 156–57.</ref>-->
 
[[Gambar:William Whipple.jpg|thumb |150px |right |[[William Whipple]], penanda tangan Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, memerdekakan budaknya percaya bahwa dia tidak dapat berjuang untuk kebebasan dan memiliki [[budak]].]]
(gambar hanyalah lukisan, bukan foto asli)
 
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<!--British officials in North America sent copies of the Declaration to Great Britain.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 73.</ref> It was published in British newspapers beginning in mid-August; translations appeared in European newspapers soon after.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 70.</ref> The [[North Ministry]] did not give an official answer to the Declaration, but instead secretly commissioned pamphleteer [[John Lind (barrister)|John Lind]] to publish a response, which was entitled ''Answer to the Declaration of the American Congress''.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 75.</ref> British Tories denounced the signers of the Declaration for not applying the same principles of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" to African Americans.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Jessup |first=John J. |title=America and the Future |magazine=Life |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=cVAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA105&dq=How+a+policy+of+Freedom+can+be+vigorously+applied&hl=en&ei=5_piTqfSL5PZiAKfn9jMCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=How%20a%20policy%20of%20Freedom%20can%20be%20vigorously%20applied&f=false |page=105 |date=September 20, 1943 |accessdate=09-03-2011}}</ref> [[Thomas Hutchinson (governor)|Thomas Hutchinson]], the former royal governor of Massachusetts, also published a rebuttal.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 74.</ref> These pamphlets challenged various aspects of the Declaration. Hutchinson argued that the American Revolution was the work of a few conspirators who wanted independence from the outset, and who had finally achieved it by inducing otherwise loyal colonists to rebel.<ref>Bailyn, ''Ideological Origins'', 155–56.</ref> Lind's pamphlet had an anonymous attack on the concept of [[natural rights]], written by [[Jeremy Bentham]], an argument which he would repeat during the [[French Revolution]].<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 79–80.</ref> Both pamphlets asked how the American slaveholders in Congress could proclaim that "all men are created equal" without freeing their own slaves.<ref>Armitage, ''Global History'', 76–77.</ref>
 
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