Kerajaan Hongaria (1920–1946): Perbedaan revisi

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Pada tanggal 29 Februari 1920, sebuah Koalisi Politik Sayap Kanan bersatu dan memutuskan bentuk pemerintahan Hongaria adalah monarki konstitusional. Negara Pemenang Perang Dunia pertama jelas menolak raja Charles IV kembali naik takhta di Hongaria. Dengan kerusuhan sipil yang besar melonjak di Hongaria maka Admiral Miklós Horthy diutus untuk memimpin Tanah Lahir Tercinta nya Hongaria.., [[Sándor Simonyi-Semadam]] adalah Perdana Menteri Pertama Kerajaan Hongaria.
== World War II<!--linked from 'Péter Eötvös'--> ==
[[File:Hungary 1941-44 Administrative Map.png|thumb|left|The Kingdom of Hungary in 1941.]]
{{Main|Hungary during World War II|Administrative divisions of the Kingdom of Hungary (1941-44)|Government of National Unity (Hungary)}}
In 1940, the Kingdom of Hungary joined the [[Axis powers]] and demanded the concession of Transylvanian territory from Romania. German [[Führer]] [[Adolf Hitler]] and the Nazi regime helped Hungary [[Second Vienna Award|receive significant portions]] of Transylvania while avoiding a war with Romania. Hitler demanded that the Hungarian government follow Germany’s military and racial agenda to avoid potential conflict in the future. Anti-Semitism was already an established political cause by the far-right in Hungary. In 1944, after the ousting of Horthy by Hitler and the installation of the National-Socialist Arrow Cross party, the Hungarian government readily aided Nazi Germany in the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Jews to concentration camps during the [[Holocaust]], where most of them died.{{Citation needed|date=November 2011}}
In April 1941, Hungary joined Germany and Italy in the [[invasion of Yugoslavia]]. Hungary was allowed to annex the [[Bačka]] (Bácska) region in [[Vojvodina]], which had a relative majority of Hungarians, as well as the regions of [[Prekmurje]] and [[Medjimurje]], which had large [[Slovenes|Slovenian]] and [[Croats|Croatian]] majorities, respectively. Its ambitions regarding Croatia were halted by the creation of the [[Independent State of Croatia]] and Nazi Germany’s alliance with the [[Kingdom of Romania]] against the [[Soviet Union]].
On 27 June 1941, Hungary declared war against the [[Soviet Union]]. Fearing a potential turn of support to the Romanians, the Hungarian government sent armed forces to support the German war effort during [[Operation Barbarossa]]. This support cost the Hungarians dearly. The entire [[Hungarian Second Army]] was lost during the [[Battle of Stalingrad]].
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-244-2306-15, Ostfront, Rückzug ungarischer Truppen.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Hungarian armor and infantry in retreat, August 1944.]]
By early 1944, with [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] forces fast advancing from the east, Hungary was caught attempting to contact the [[United Kingdom|British]] and the [[United States|Americans]] to secretly switch sides. On 19 March 1944, the Germans responded by invading Hungary in [[Operation Margarethe]]. German forces occupied key locations to ensure Hungarian loyalty. They placed Horthy under [[house arrest]] and replaced Prime Minister [[Miklós Kállay]] with a more pliable successor. [[Döme Sztójay]], an avid supporter of the Nazis, became the new [[List of Prime Ministers of Hungary|Hungarian Prime Minister]]. Sztójay governed with the aid of a Nazi Military Governor, [[Edmund Veesenmayer]].
By October of the same year, the Hungarians were again caught trying to switch sides, and the Germans launched [[Operation Panzerfaust]]. They replaced Horthy with [[Arrow Cross Party|Arrow Cross]] leader [[Ferenc Szálasi]]. A new pro-German "[[Government of National Unity (Hungary)|Government of National Unity]]" was proclaimed, and it continued the war on the side of the Axis. Szálasi did not replace Horthy as Regent, but was appointed as the "Nationleader" (''Nemzetvezető'') and Prime Minister of the new Hungarian Fascist regime.
On 21 December 1944, a Hungarian "Interim Assembly" met in [[Debrecen]], with the approval of the [[Soviet Union]]. This assembly elected an interim counter-government headed by [[Béla Miklós]], the former commander of the [[Hungarian First Army]]. At the end of March 1945, Szálasi's regime was driven out of Hungary.<ref>Stanley G. Payne, [ ''A History of Fascism, 1914-1945''], Routledge, 1996, page 420</ref>
[[Kategori:Sejarah Hongaria]]
[[Kategori:Bekas monarki di Eropa]]