Kerajaan Hongaria (1920–1946): Perbedaan revisi

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{{about|the Kingdom of Hungary between 1920 to 1946|the general article|Kingdom of Hungary}}
'''Kerajaan Hongaria''' berdiri dari tahun 1919 hingga 1946. Kerajaan Hongaria merupakan bagian dari [[blok Poros]] selama [[Perang Dunia II]]. Pada tahun 1944, Hongaria diduduki oleh [[Jerman Nazi]]. Kerajaan ini berubah menjadi negara boneka Fasis.
{{Infobox former country
|conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Hungary
|native_name = ''Magyar Királyság''
|common_name = Hungary
|continent = Europe
|region = Central Europe
|country = Hungary
|status =
|p1 = Hungarian Republic (1919–20)
|flag_p1 = Flag of Hungary 1940.svg
|p2 = Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938)
|flag_p2 = Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg
|p3 = Carpatho-Ukraine
|flag_p3 = Flag of Ukraine.svg
|p4 = Slovak Republic (1939–45)
|flag_p4 = Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg
|p5 = Kingdom of Romania
|flag_p5 = Flag of Romania.svg
|p6 = Kingdom of Yugoslavia
|flag_p6 = Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg
|s1 = Republic of Hungary (1946–1949)
|flag_s1 = Flag of Hungary (1946-1949, 1956-1957).svg
|s2 = Czechoslovak Republic (1945–48)
|flag_s2 = Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg
|s3 = Kingdom of Romania
|flag_s3 = Flag of Romania.svg
|s4 = Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
|flag_s4 = Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.svg
|image_flag = Flag of Hungary 1940.svg
|image_coat = Coat of arms of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946; angels).svg
|coa_size = 110px
|national_motto = "Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae"<ref>Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). ''World Dictionary of Foreign Expressions''. Ed. Thomas J. Sienkewicz and James T. McDonough, Jr. Wauconda, IL: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-86516-422-3.</ref> <small>([[Latin]])<br/>"Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"</small>
|national_anthem = ''[[Himnusz]]''<br/><small>Hymn</small><br/><center>[[File:Erkel Ferenc Magyar Himnusz.ogg]]</center>
|image_map = Kingdom of Hungary (1942).svg
|image_map_caption = Extent of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1942.
|capital = Budapest
|latd=47 |latm=28 |latNS=N |longd=19 |longm=03 |longEW=E
|common_languages = [[Hungarian language|Hungarian]] (official) {{·}}[[German language|German]]{{·}}[[Romanian language|Romanian]]{{·}}[[Rusyn language|Rusyn]]{{·}}[[Slovak language|Slovak]]{{·}}[[Croatian language|Croatian]]{{·}}[[Serbian language|Serbian]]{{·}}[[Slovene language|Slovene]]{{·}}[[Carpathian Romani]]{{·}}[[Yiddish dialects|Mideastern Yiddish]]
|religion = [[Roman Catholicism]]{{·}}[[Calvinism]]{{·}}[[Lutheranism]]{{·}}[[Eastern Orthodoxy]]{{·}}[[Eastern Catholicism]]{{·}}[[Unitarianism]]{{·}}[[Judaism]]
|government_type = [[Authoritarianism|Authoritarian]] [[regency]]<br/><small>(1920&ndash;1944)</small><br/>[[Agrarianism|Agrarian]] [[Fascism|fascist]] [[one-party state]]<br/><small>(1944&ndash;1945)</small>
|title_leader = [[King of Hungary|King]]
|leader1 = ''Vacant''&nbsp;<sup>a</sup>
|year_leader1 = 1920&ndash;1946
|title_representative = [[Heads of State of Hungary|Head of State]]
|representative1 = [[Miklós Horthy]]<sup>b</sup>
|year_representative1 = 1920&ndash;1944
|representative2 = [[Ferenc Szálasi]]<sup>c</sup>
|year_representative2 = 1944&ndash;1945
|representative3 = [[High National Council]]<sup>d</sup>
|year_representative3 = 1945&ndash;1946
|title_deputy = [[List of Prime Ministers of Hungary|Prime Minister]]
|deputy1 = Károly Huszár
|year_deputy1 = 1920 <small>(first)</small>
|deputy2 = Zoltán Tildy
|year_deputy2 = 1945&ndash;1946 <small>(last)</small>
|legislature = [[Diet of Hungary|Diet]]
|house1 = [[Diet of Hungary|Felsőház]]
|type_house1 = Upper
|house2 = [[Diet of Hungary|Képviselőház]]
|type_house2 = Representatives
|era = [[Interwar period|Interwar]]{{·}}[[World War II]]
|event_start = Monarchy restored
|date_start = 29 February<ref>{{cite book |editor-first= Gyula|editor-last= Dr. Térfy|title= Magyar törvénytár (Corpus Juris Hungarici): 1920. évi törvénycikkek|year= 1921|publisher= Révai Testvérek Irodalmi Intézet Részvénytársaság|chapter=1920. évi I. törvénycikk az alkotmányosság helyreállításáról és az állami főhatalom gyakorlásának ideiglenes rendezéséről.|location= Budapest|language= Hungarian|isbn= |page= 3}}</ref>
|year_start = 1920
|event_end = Monarchy abolished
|date_end = 1 February
|year_end = 1946
|event1 = [[Treaty of Trianon]]
|date_event1 = 4 June 1920
|event2 = [[First Vienna Award]]
|date_event2 = 2 November 1938
|event3 = [[Second Vienna Award]]
|date_event3 = 30 August 1940
|event4 = [[Government of National Unity (Hungary)|Hungarist take-over]]
|date_event4 = 16 October 1944
|stat_year1 = 1920<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor=Kollega Tarsoly, István |encyclopedia=Révai nagy lexikona |title=Magyarország |language=Hungarian |year=1995 |publisher=Hasonmás Kiadó |volume=Volume 20 |location=Budapest |isbn=963-8318-70-8 |pages=595–597}}</ref>
|stat_area1 = 92833
|stat_pop1 = 7980143
|stat_year2 = 1930<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor=Kollega Tarsoly, István |encyclopedia=Révai nagy lexikona |title=Magyarország |language=Hungarian |year=1996 |publisher=Hasonmás Kiadó |volume=Volume 21 |location=Budapest |isbn=963-9015-02-4 |page=572}}</ref>
|stat_area2 = 93073
|stat_pop2 = 8688319
|stat_year3 = 1941<ref>{{cite encyclopedia |editor= Élesztős László|encyclopedia=Révai új lexikona |title=Magyarország |language=Hungarian |year=2004 |publisher=Hasonmás Kiadó |volume=Volume 13 |location=Budapest |isbn=963-9556-13-0 |pages=882, 895|display-editors=etal}}</ref>
|stat_area3 = 172149
|stat_pop3 = 14669100
|currency = [[Hungarian korona]] <small>(1920&ndash;1927)</small><br/>[[Hungarian pengő]] <small>(1927&ndash;1946)</small>
|today = {{flagcountry|Croatia}}<br/>{{flagcountry|Hungary}}<br/>{{flagcountry|Romania}}<br>{{flagcountry|Serbia}}<br/>{{flagcountry|Slovakia}}<br/>{{flagcountry|Slovenia}}<br/>{{flagcountry|Ukraine}}
|footnote_a = Claimed by former King [[Charles IV of Hungary]] in 1921.
|footnote_b = Miklós Horthy used the title "[[Regent of Hungary|Regent]]".
|footnote_c = Ferenc Szálasi used the title "[[Nation Leader]]".
|footnote_d = Ruled as a collective head of state.
}}
 
'''Kerajaan Hungaria''' ([[Bahasa Hungaria]]: ''Magyar Királyság''), dikenal juga sebagai '''Regency''', yang muncul di peta Eropa pada 1920 sampai 1946 sebagai negara ''de facto'' dibawah naungan Admiral [[Miklós Horthy]]. [[Miklós Horthy|Horthy]] officially represented the [[Holy Crown of Hungary|Hungarian monarchy]] of [[Charles IV of Hungary|Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary]]. Attempts by Charles IV to return to the throne were prevented by threats of war from [[Little Entente|neighbouring countries]] and by the lack of support from Horthy (see the [[Charles I of Austria's attempts to retake the throne of Hungary|conflict of Charles IV with Miklós Horthy]]).
Setelah Perang Dunia II, Hongaria jatuh kedalam pengaruh [[Uni Soviet]]. Pada tahun 1946, berdiri [[Republik Hongaria Kedua]].
 
The country has been regarded by some historians to have been a [[client state]] of [[Nazi Germany|Germany]] from 1938 to 1944.<ref>Seamus Dunn, T.G. Fraser. Europe and Ethnicity: The First World War and Contemporary Ethnic Conflict. Routledge, 1996. P97.</ref>
The Kingdom of Hungary under Horthy was an [[Axis powers of World War II|Axis Power]] during most of World War II. In 1944, after Horthy's government considered leaving the war, Hungary was occupied by [[Nazi Germany]] and Horthy was deposed. The [[Arrow Cross Party]]'s leader [[Ferenc Szálasi]] established a new [[Government of National Unity (Hungary)|Nazi-backed government]], effectively turning Hungary into a German [[puppet state]].
 
After World War II, Hungary fell within the [[Soviet Union]]'s sphere of interest. In 1946, the [[Second Hungarian Republic]] was established under Soviet influence. In 1949, the communist [[Hungarian People's Republic]] was founded.
 
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