Robert Jay Lifton: Perbedaan revisi

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{{Infobox scientist
|image = 2000 03 17 Robert Jay Lifton.jpg
|image_size = 150px |
| name = Robert Jay Lifton
| birth_date = {{Birth date and age|1926|5|16|mf=y}}
| birth_place = [[Brooklyn, New York]]
| death_date =
| death_place =
| residence = [[Amerika Serikat]]
| nationality = [[Amerika Serikat|Amerika]]
| field = [[psikiatri]], [[psikohistori]], [[cuci otak]], [[reformasi pemikiran]]
| institution = Sekolah Psikiatri Washington<br>[[Harvard University]]<br>[[John Jay College of Criminal Justice]]<br>[[Yale University]]
| alma_mater = [[Universitas Cornell]]<br>[[Kolese Kedokteran New York]]
| doctoral_advisor =
| doctoral_students =
| known_for = Penulis ''Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism'', ''Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima'', ''The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide''
| author_abbreviation_bot =
| author_abbreviation_zoo =
|Honorary Doctorate - Stonehill College (2008)
| religion =
| footnotes =
| spouse = Betty Jean Kirschner
}}
'''Robert Jay Lifton''' (lahir 16 Mei 1926) adalah seorang[[ psikiater]] dan penulis [[Amerika Serikat|Amerika]], lebih dikenal atas studi-studinya mengenai penyebab dan efek psikologis dari perang dan kekerasan politik dan atas teori reformasi pemikirannya. Ia adalah pendukung awal teknik [[psikohistori]].
 
Lifton menyebutkan bahwa menggambar [[Kartunis|kartun]] adalah hobi dan kerja sambilannya. Ia telah menerbitkan dua buku kartun humor mengenai [[burung]].
 
Ia adalah anggota [[Kolegium Internasional]], sebuah organisasi para pemimpin dengan keahlian politik, ilmiah, dan etika yang tujuannya adalah memberikan pendekatan baru dalam mengatasi permasalahan-permasalahan di dunia berkelanjutan secara damai, sosial, dan expertise whose goal is to provide new approaches in overcoming the obstacles in the way of a peaceful, socially just and an economically sustainable worldekonomis.
 
== Studi reformasi pemikiran ==
 
Dimulai tahun 1953, Lifton menginterviu prajurit-prajurit Amerika yang pernah menjadi [[tahanan perang]] selama [[Perang Korea]]. Selain interviu dengan 25 prajurit Amerika, Lifton juga menginterviu 15 orang Tionghoa yang melarikan diri dari negaranya setelah menjadi sasaran indoktrinasi di universitas-universitas Tiongkok.<ref>A. L. Wilkes (1997). ''Knowledge in Minds'', p. 323, Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-86377-439-3</ref> Berdasarkan riset ini, tahun 1961 Lifton menulis buku ''Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China'' (Lihat: [[Reformasi pemikiran di Republik Rakyat Tiongkok]]).<ref name="CLIO Holdings Information">{{cite web|url=http://clio.cul.columbia.edu:7018/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=4720714 |title=CLIO Holdings Information |publisher=Clio.cul.columbia.edu:7018 |date= |accessdate=29-09-2013}}</ref>
 
Ini adalah studi teknik koersif yang ia namakan "reformasi pemikiran" atau "[[cuci otak|pencucian otak]]", meskipun ia lebih memilih istilah pertama. Istilah "thought-terminating cliché" ([[klise|''klise pembatasan pemikiran'']]) populer melalui buku ini. Lifton menemukan fakta bahwa ketika para prajurit yang pernah menjadi tahanan perang kembali ke Amerika Serikat, pikiran mereka segera kembali normal, hal ini bertentangan dengan kesan di masyarakat mengenai "pencucian otak".<ref name='Home_by_Ship'>{{cite journal |title=Home by Ship: Reaction Patterns of American Prisoners of War Repatriated from North Korea |journal=American Journal of Psychiatry |date=April 1954 |first=Robert J. |last=Lifton |volume=110 |issue=10 |pages=732–739 |url=http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/110/10/732 |accessdate=2008-03-30 |pmid=13138750 |doi=10.1176/appi.ajp.110.10.732}}''</ref> Buku ini diterbitkan oleh [[W. W. Norton & Company|Norton]] di New York.<ref name="CLIO Holdings Information"/> Edisi cetak ulang diterbitkan tahun 1989 oleh [[University of North Carolina Press]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Jay |first=Robert |url=http://uncpress.unc.edu/browse/book_detail?title_id=321 |title=UNC Press – Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism |publisher=Uncpress.unc.edu |date= |accessdate=29-09-2013}}</ref>
 
== Bibliografi ==
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* ''Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism: A Study of "Brainwashing" in China,'' Norton (New York City), 1961. {{OCLC|203733}}
* ''Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima'', Random House (New York City), 1968.
* ''Revolutionary Immortality: Mao Tse-Tung and the Chinese Cultural Revolution'', Random House, 1968.
* ''Birds, Words, and Birds'' (cartoons), Random House, 1969.
* ''History and Human Survival: Essays on the Young and the Old, Survivors and the Dead, Peace and War, and on Contemporary Psychohistory'', Random House, 1970.
* ''Boundaries'', Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Toronto), 1969, diterbitkan dengan judul ''Boundaries: Psychological Man in Revolution'', Random House, 1970.
* ''Home from the War: Vietnam Veterans&mdash;Neither Victims nor Executioners'', Simon & Schuster (New York City), 1973.
* (Dengan Eric Olson) ''Living and Dying'', Praeger, 1974.
* ''The Life of the Self: Toward a New Psychology'', Simon & Schuster, 1976.
* ''Psychobirds'', Countryman Press, 1978.
* (Dengan [[Shūichi Katō]] dan Michael Reich) ''Six Lives/Six Deaths: Portraits from Modern Japan'' (awalnya diterbitkan dalam bahasa Jepang dengan judul ''Nihonjin no shiseikan'', 1977), Yale University Press (New Haven, CT), 1979.
* ''The Broken Connection: On Death and the Continuity of Life'', Simon & Schuster, 1979.
* (Dengan Richard A. Falk) ''Indefensible Weapons: The Political and Psychological Case against Nuclearism'', Basic Books (New York City), 1982.
* ''The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide'', Basic Books, Agustus 2000( first edition 1986).
* ''The Future of Immortality and Other Essays for a Nuclear Age'', Basic Books, 1987.
* (Dengan Eric Markusen) ''The Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and Nuclear Threat'', Basic Books, 1990.
* ''The Protean Self: Human Resilience in an Age of Fragmentation'', Basic Books, 1993.
* (Dengan Greg Mitchell) ''Hiroshima in America: Fifty Years of Denial'', Putnam's (New York City), 1995.
* ''Destroying the World to Save It: Aum Shinrikyo, Apocalyptic Violence, and the New Global Terrorism'', Owl Books, 2000.
* (Dengan Greg Mitchell) ''Who Owns Death? Capital Punishment, the American Conscience, and the End of Executions'', Morrow, 2000.
* ''Superpower Syndrome: America's Apocalyptic Confrontation With the World'', Nation Books, 2003.
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=== Lifton sebagai editor ===
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* (Dengan Jacob D. Lindy)''Beyond Invisible Walls: The Psychological Legacy of Soviet Trauma, East European Therapists and Their Patients'', Edwards Brothers (Lillington, NC), 2001.
* ''The Woman in America'', Houghton (Boston), 1965.
* ''America and the Asian Revolutions'', Trans-Action Books, 1970, second edition, 1973.
* (Dengan Richard A. Falk and Gabriel Kolko) ''Crimes of War: A Legal, Political-Documentary, and Psychological Inquiry into the Responsibilities of Leaders, Citizens, and Soldiers for Criminal Acts of War'', Random House, 1971.
* (Dengan Eric Olson) ''Explorations in Psychohistory: The Wellfleet Papers'', Simon & Schuster, 1975.
* (dengan Eric Chivian, Susanna Chivian, and John E. Mack) ''Last Aid: The Medical Dimensions of Nuclear War'', W. H. Freeman, 1982.
* (Dengan [[Nicholas Humphrey]]) ''In a Dark Time: Images for Survival'', Harvard University Press, 1984.
{{div col end}}
 
== Referensi ==
* [http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people/Lifton/lifton-con0.html Evil, the Self, and Survival]: interviu oleh Harry Kreisler, 1999
* [http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/351/5/415 Doctors and Torture]: Lifton membahas "keadaan-keadaan yang menciptakan kekerasan" dalam kasus penyiksaan tahanan Abu Ghraib, 2004
* [http://www.tomdispatch.com/index.mhtml?pid=1119 Artikel Sindrom Kekuasaan Super], [http://www.tomdispatch.com/index.mhtml TomDispatch], 2006.
* [http://www.npr.org/programs/death/980104.death.html The End of Life: Exploring Death in America]. Transkrip "Doctors and Death", [[:en:All_Things_Considered|All Things Considered]], 4 Januari.<br>
* [http://www.hiroshimapeacemedia.jp/mediacenter/article.php?story=20081230213542604_en Hiroshima and the World: The Wisdom of Survivors,] artikel pada Chugoku Shimbun.
* [http://www.pbs.org/now/transcript/transcript_lifton.html Bill Moyers Menginterviu Robert Jay Lifton]: mengenai akibat dari [[Serangan 11 September 2001|serangan teroris 11 September]], 2002
* {{Templat:Imdb nama|1634520}}
* [http://vimeo.com/26450042 Interviu dengan Steven Hassan]. [[Steven Hassan|Freedom of Mind]], 13 Juli 2011
* [http://vimeo.com/47757732 Interviu dengan Steven Hassan]. [[Steven Hassan|Freedom of Mind]], Agustus 2012
[[Kategori:Kelahiran 1926]]
[[Kategori:Psikiater Amerika Serikat]]