Giordano Bruno

Giordano Bruno (/ɔːrˈdɑːn ˈbrn/ ; bahasa Italia: [dʒorˈdaːno ˈbruːno]; bahasa Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; lahir Filippo Bruno, Januari atau Februari 1548 – 17 Februari 1600) adalah seorang biarawan, filsuf, matematikawan, penyair, ahli teori kosmologis, dan okultis Hermetik Italia.[4] Dia dikenal karena teori kosmologisnya, yang secara konseptual memperluas model heliosentrisme Copernicus. Dia menyatakan bahwa bintang-bintang adalah matahari yang jauh yang dikelilingi oleh planet-planetnya sendiri. Dia juga menunjukkan kemungkinan bahwa planet-planet ini dapat memelihara kehidupan mereka sendiri, sebuah posisi kosmologis yang dikenal sebagai pluralisme kosmik. Dia juga menyatakan bahwa alam semesta adalah tidak terbatas dan tidak mungkin memiliki "pusat".

Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno.jpg
Potret modern berdasarkan ukiran kayu dari "Livre du recteur", 1578
LahirFilippo Bruno
Januari or Februari 1548
Nola, Kerajaan Napoli
Meninggal17 Februari 16001548; umur -53–-52 tahun
Rome, Negara Gereja
Sebab meninggalDibakar hidup-hidup
EraRenaissance
AliranHumanisme Renaisans
Neopythagoreanisme
Minat utama
Cosmology
Gagasan penting
Cosmic pluralism

Pada tahun 1593, Bruno mulai diadili karena dianggap melakukan bidaah oleh Inkuisisi Romawi. Tuduhan yang diajukan antara lain menyangkal beberapa doktrin inti Katolik, termasuk neraka, Trinitas, keilahian Kristus, keperawanan Maria, dan transubstansiasi. Panteisme Bruno dianggap sebagai masalah yang serius oleh gereja.[5] Pandangannya yang juga dianggap bermasalah adalah ajarannya tentang perpindahan jiwa (reinkarnasi). Inkuisisi Roma menyatakan dia bersalah. Bruno kemudian dihukum mati dengan cara dibakar hidup-hidup di Campo de' Fiori Roma pada tahun 1600. Setelah kematiannya, dia memperoleh ketenaran yang cukup besar. Para komentator abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 menganggapnya sebagai martir bagi ilmu sains, meskipun sebagian besar sejarawan setuju bahwa persidangan bidaahnya bukanlah reaksi terhadap pandangan kosmologisnya, melainkan reaksi terhadap pandangannya tentang agama dan kehidupan setelah kematian.[6][7][8][9][10] Namun beberapa sejarawan berpendapat bahwa alasan utama kematian Bruno memang karena pandangan kosmologisnya.[11] Kasus kematian Bruno dianggap sebagai tonggak sejarah pemikiran bebas dan kemunculan ilmu-ilmu sains yang baru.[12][13]

Selain kosmologi, Bruno juga banyak menulis tentang seni ingatan, sebuah teknik dan prinsip mnemonik yang terorganisasi. Sejarawan Frances Yates berpendapat bahwa Bruno sangat dipengaruhi oleh astrologi Islam (khususnya filsafat Averroes),[14] Neoplatonisme, Hermetisisme Renaisans, dan legenda seperti Kejadian seputar dewa Mesir Thoth.[15] Studi lain Bruno juga berfokus pada pendekatan kualitatif untuk matematika dan penerapan konsep spasial geometri untuk bahasa.[16]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Leo Catana (2005). The Concept of Contraction in Giordano Bruno's Philosophy. Ashgate Pub. ISBN 978-0754652618. When Bruno states in De la causa that matter provides the extension of particulars, he follows Averroes. 
  2. ^ Frances Yates, "Lull and Bruno" (1982), in Collected Essays: Lull & Bruno, vol. I, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  3. ^ Bouvet, Molière; avec une notice sur le théâtre au XVIIe siècle, une biographie chronologique de Molière, une étude générale de son oeuvre, une analyse méthodique du "Malade", des notes, des questions par Alphonse (1973). Le malade imaginaire; L'amour médecin. Paris: Bordas. hlm. 23. ISBN 978-2-04-006776-2. 
  4. ^ Gatti, Hilary.
  5. ^ Birx, H. James.
  6. ^ Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964, p. 450
  7. ^ Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 10, "[Bruno's] sources... seem to have been more numerous than his followers, at least until the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of interest in Bruno as a supposed 'martyr for science.'
  8. ^ Adam Frank (2009).
  9. ^ White, Michael (2002).
  10. ^ Shackelford, Joel (2009). "Myth 7 That Giordano Bruno was the first martyr of modern science". Dalam Numbers, Ronald L. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. hlm. 66. 
  11. ^ Martínez, Alberto A. (2018). Burned Alive: Giordano Bruno, Galileo and the Inquisition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1780238968. 
  12. ^ Gatti, Hilary (2002). Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science: Broken Lives and Organizational Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. hlm. 18–19. ISBN 978-0801487859. Diakses tanggal 21 March 2014. For Bruno was claiming for the philosopher a principle of free thought and inquiry which implied an entirely new concept of authority: that of the individual intellect in its serious and continuing pursuit of an autonomous inquiry… It is impossible to understand the issue involved and to evaluate justly the stand made by Bruno with his life without appreciating the question of free thought and liberty of expression. His insistence on placing this issue at the center of both his work and of his defense is why Bruno remains so much a figure of the modern world. If there is, as many have argued, an intrinsic link between science and liberty of inquiry, then Bruno was among those who guaranteed the future of the newly emerging sciences, as well as claiming in wider terms a general principle of free thought and expression. 
  13. ^ Montano, Aniello (2007). Antonio Gargano, ed. Le deposizioni davanti al tribunale dell'Inquisizione. Napoli: La Città del Sole. hlm. 71. In Rome, Bruno was imprisoned for seven years and subjected to a difficult trial that analyzed, minutely, all his philosophical ideas. Bruno, who in Venice had been willing to recant some theses, became increasingly resolute and declared on 21 December 1599 that he 'did not wish to repent of having too little to repent, and in fact did not know what to repent.' Declared an unrepentant heretic and excommunicated, he was burned alive in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome on Ash Wednesday, 17 February 1600. On the stake, along with Bruno, burned the hopes of many, including philosophers and scientists of good faith like Galileo, who thought they could reconcile religious faith and scientific research, while belonging to an ecclesiastical organization declaring itself to be the custodian of absolute truth and maintaining a cultural militancy requiring continual commitment and suspicion. 
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  15. ^ The primary work on the relationship between Bruno and Hermeticism is Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and The Hermetic Tradition, 1964; for an alternative assessment, placing more emphasis on the Kabbalah, and less on Hermeticism, see Karen Silvia De Leon-Jones, Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah, Yale, 1997; for a return to emphasis on Bruno's role in the development of Science, and criticism of Yates' emphasis on magical and Hermetic themes, see Hillary Gatti (1999), Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science, Cornell.
  16. ^ Alessandro G. Farinella and Carole Preston, "Giordano Bruno: Neoplatonism and the Wheel of Memory in the 'De Umbris Idearum'", in Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 2, (Summer, 2002), pp. 596–624; Arielle Saiber, Giordano Bruno and the Geometry of Language, Ashgate, 2005

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