Giordano Bruno (/ɔːrˈdɑːn ˈbrn/ ; Italia: [dʒorˈdaːno ˈbruːno]; bahasa Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; lahir Filippo Bruno, Januari atau Februari 1548 – 17 Februari 1600) adalah seorang biarawan, filsuf, matematikawan, penyair, ahli teori kosmologis, dan okultis Hermetik yang berasal dari Italia.[4] Dia dikenal atas teori kosmologisnya, yang secara konsepsual memperluas model heliosentrisme Copernicus. Dia menyatakan bahwa bintang-bintang adalah matahari yang jauh yang dikelilingi oleh planet-planetnya sendiri. Dia juga mengajukan kemungkinan kalau sejumlah dari planet-planet tersebut juga menampung kehidupan, sebuah posisi kosmologis yang dikenal sebagai pluralisme kosmik. Dia juga menyatakan bahwa alam semesta ini tidak terbatas dan tidak memiliki "pusat".

Giordano Bruno
LahirFilippo Bruno
Januari or Februari 1548
Nola, Kerajaan Napoli
Meninggal17 Februari 1600 – 1548; umur -53–-52 tahun
Rome, Negara Gereja
Sebab meninggalDibakar hidup-hidup
EraRenaissance
AliranHumanisme Renaisans
Neopythagoreanisme
Minat utama
Cosmology
Gagasan penting
Cosmic pluralism

Sejak tahun 1593, Bruno mulai diadili atas tuduhan bidaah oleh Inkuisisi Romawi atas tuduhan penyangkalan beberapa doktrin inti Katolik, seperti neraka, Trinitas, keilahian Kristus, keperawanan Maria, dan transubstansiasi. Panteisme Bruno dianggap sebagai masalah yang serius oleh gereja,[5] begitupula pandangannya tentang perpindahan jiwa (reinkarnasi). Inkuisisi Roma menyatakan dia bersalah, dan Bruno dihukum mati dengan cara dibakar hidup-hidup di Campo de' Fiori, Roma pada tahun 1600. Setelah kematiannya, ia memperoleh popularitas yang cukup besar. Para komentator abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 menempatkannya sebagai martir bagi ilmu pengetahuan. Sebagian sejarawan berpendapat bahwa pengadilan bidahnya bukanlah tanggapan terhadap pandangan kosmologisnya, tetapi lebih merupakan tanggapan terhadap pandangan religius dan kehidupan setelah kematiannya.[6][7][8][9][10] Sedangkan yang lainnya menganggap bahwa alasan utama dihukumnya Bruno oleh gereja adalah memang karena pandangan kosmologis-nya.[11] Kasus kematian Bruno dianggap sebagai tonggak sejarah pemikiran bebas dan kemunculan ilmu-ilmu sains yang baru.[12][13]

Selain kosmologi, Bruno juga banyak menulis tentang seni ingatan, sebuah teknik dan prinsip mnemonik yang terorganisasi. Sejarawan Frances Yates berpendapat bahwa Bruno sangat dipengaruhi oleh Empedokles, Neoplatonisme, Hermetisisme Renaisans, dan legenda seperti Kejadian seputar dewa Mesir Thoth.[14] Studi lain Bruno juga berfokus pada pendekatan kualitatif terhadap matematika dan penerapan konsep spasial geometri untuk bahasa.[15]

Referensi sunting

  1. ^ Leo Catana (2005). The Concept of Contraction in Giordano Bruno's Philosophy. Ashgate Pub. ISBN 978-0754652618. When Bruno states in De la causa that matter provides the extension of particulars, he follows Averroes. 
  2. ^ Frances Yates, "Lull and Bruno" (1982), in Collected Essays: Lull & Bruno, vol. I, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  3. ^ Bouvet, Molière; avec une notice sur le théâtre au XVIIe siècle, une biographie chronologique de Molière, une étude générale de son oeuvre, une analyse méthodique du "Malade", des notes, des questions par Alphonse (1973). Le malade imaginaire; L'amour médecin. Paris: Bordas. hlm. 23. ISBN 978-2-04-006776-2. 
  4. ^ Gatti, Hilary.
  5. ^ Birx, H. James.
  6. ^ Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964, p. 450
  7. ^ Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 10, "[Bruno's] sources... seem to have been more numerous than his followers, at least until the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of interest in Bruno as a supposed 'martyr for science.' It is true that he was burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, but the church authorities guilty of this action were almost certainly more distressed at his denial of Christ's divinity and alleged diabolism than at his cosmological doctrines."
  8. ^ Adam Frank (2009). The Constant Fire: Beyond the Science vs. Religion Debate, University of California Press, p. 24, "Though Bruno may have been a brilliant thinker whose work stands as a bridge between ancient and modern thought, his persecution cannot be seen solely in light of the war between science and religion."
  9. ^ White, Michael (2002). The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York. "This was perhaps the most dangerous notion of all... If other worlds existed with intelligent beings living there, did they too have their visitations? The idea was quite unthinkable."
  10. ^ Shackelford, Joel (2009). "Myth 7 That Giordano Bruno was the first martyr of modern science". Dalam Numbers, Ronald L. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. hlm. 66.  "Yet the fact remains that cosmological matters, notably the plurality of worlds, were an identifiable concern all along and appear in the summary document: Bruno was repeatedly questioned on these matters, and he apparently refused to recant them at the end.14 So, Bruno probably was burned alive for resolutely maintaining a series of heresies, among which his teaching of the plurality of worlds was prominent but by no means singular."
  11. ^ Martínez, Alberto A. (2018). Burned Alive: Giordano Bruno, Galileo and the Inquisition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-1780238968. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2023-06-29. Diakses tanggal 2022-05-05. 
  12. ^ Gatti, Hilary (2002). Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science: Broken Lives and Organizational Power. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. hlm. 18–19. ISBN 978-0801487859. Diakses tanggal 21 March 2014. For Bruno was claiming for the philosopher a principle of free thought and inquiry which implied an entirely new concept of authority: that of the individual intellect in its serious and continuing pursuit of an autonomous inquiry… It is impossible to understand the issue involved and to evaluate justly the stand made by Bruno with his life without appreciating the question of free thought and liberty of expression. His insistence on placing this issue at the center of both his work and of his defense is why Bruno remains so much a figure of the modern world. If there is, as many have argued, an intrinsic link between science and liberty of inquiry, then Bruno was among those who guaranteed the future of the newly emerging sciences, as well as claiming in wider terms a general principle of free thought and expression. 
  13. ^ Montano, Aniello (2007). Antonio Gargano, ed. Le deposizioni davanti al tribunale dell'Inquisizione. Napoli: La Città del Sole. hlm. 71. In Rome, Bruno was imprisoned for seven years and subjected to a difficult trial that analyzed, minutely, all his philosophical ideas. Bruno, who in Venice had been willing to recant some theses, became increasingly resolute and declared on 21 December 1599 that he 'did not wish to repent of having too little to repent, and in fact did not know what to repent.' Declared an unrepentant heretic and excommunicated, he was burned alive in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome on Ash Wednesday, 17 February 1600. On the stake, along with Bruno, burned the hopes of many, including philosophers and scientists of good faith like Galileo, who thought they could reconcile religious faith and scientific research, while belonging to an ecclesiastical organization declaring itself to be the custodian of absolute truth and maintaining a cultural militancy requiring continual commitment and suspicion. 
  14. ^ The primary work on the relationship between Bruno and Hermeticism is Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and The Hermetic Tradition, 1964; for an alternative assessment, placing more emphasis on the Kabbalah, and less on Hermeticism, see Karen Silvia De Leon-Jones, Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah, Yale, 1997; for a return to emphasis on Bruno's role in the development of Science, and criticism of Yates' emphasis on magical and Hermetic themes, see Hillary Gatti (1999), Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science, Cornell.
  15. ^ Alessandro G. Farinella and Carole Preston, "Giordano Bruno: Neoplatonism and the Wheel of Memory in the 'De Umbris Idearum'", in Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 2, (Summer, 2002), pp. 596–624; Arielle Saiber, Giordano Bruno and the Geometry of Language, Ashgate, 2005

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