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Fungsionalisme versus intensionalisme

Fungsionalisme versus intensionalisme adalah perdebatan historiografis tentang asal mula Holokaus serta sejumlah aspek Reich Ketiga, misalnya kebijakan luar negeri. Perdebatan mengenai asal mula Holokaus berpusat pada dua pertanyaan:

  • Apakah Adolf Hitler memiliki rencana besar untuk melakukan Holokaus? Kaum intensionalis berpendapat bahwa rencana seperti itu benar-benar ada, tetapi kaum fungsionalis berpendapat sebaliknya.
  • Apakah inisiatif melakukan Holokaus berasal dari atas, artinya perintah datang langsung dari Adolf Hitler, atau dari bawah, artinya perintah datang dari para birokrat Jerman? Meski kedua belah pihak tidak membantah Holokaus dan tidak ada keraguan bahwa Hitler (selaku Führer) secara pribadi bertanggung jawab karena merongrong anti-Semitisme yang memungkinkan Holokaus terjadi, kaum intensionalis berpendapat bahwa inisiatif Holokaus datang dari atas, sedangkan kaum fungsionalis berpendapat sebaliknya.

Istilah ini dicetuskan dalam esai tahun 1981 yang ditulis sejarawan Marxis Britania Raya, Timothy Mason.[1] Pemikir fungsionalis ternama adalah Raul Hilberg, Christopher Browning, Hans Mommsen, Martin Broszat, dan Zygmunt Bauman. Pemikir intensionalis ternama adalah Andreas Hillgruber, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Klaus Hildebrand, Eberhard Jäckel, Richard Breitman, Lucy Dawidowicz, dan Daniel Jonah Goldhagen.

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  1. ^ Browning 1986, hlm. 343 n1: "The terms 'intentionalist' and 'functionalist' were coined by Tim Mason, 'Intention and Explanation: A Current Controversy about the Interpretation of National Socialism,' Der Führerstaat: Mythos und Realität, ed. Gerhard Hirschfeld and Lothar Kettenacker (Stuttgart, 1981), 21-40. Prime examples of the two interpretive approaches can be seen in the articles by Klaus Hildebrand and Hans Mommsen in the same volume."

SumberSunting

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Templat:Holokaus