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Emotivisme adalah pandangan meta-etika yang mengklaim bahwa kalimat etis tidak menyampaikan proposisi, melainkan sikap emosional.[1][2] Karena itu teori ini dikenal dengan sebutan teori hore/huu. Dipengaruhi oleh pertumbuhan filsafat analitis dan positivisme logika pada abad ke-20, teori ini dijelaskan oleh A. J. Ayer dalam buku Language, Truth and Logic (1936),[3] tetapi lebih dikembangkan oleh C. L. Stevenson.[4]

Emotivisme dapat dianggap sebagai bentuk non-kognitivisme atau ekspresivisme. Emotivisme menolak bentuk-bentuk lain non-kognitivisme (seperti kuasi-realisme dan preskriptivisme universal) serta segala bentuk kognitivisme (termasukk= realisme moral dan subjektivisme etika).

Pada tahun 1950-an, emotivisme tampil dalam bentuk modifikasi dari preskriptivisme universal R. M. Hare.[5][6]

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  1. ^ Garner and Rosen, Moral Philosophy, chapter 13 ("Noncognitivist Theories") and Brandt, Ethical Theory, chapter 9 ("Noncognitivism") regard the ethical theories of Ayer, Stevenson and Hare as noncognitivist ones.
  2. ^ Ogden and Richards, Meaning, 125: "'Good' is alleged to stand for a unique, unanalyzable concept … [which] is the subject matter of ethics. This peculiar ethical use of 'good' is, we suggest, a purely emotive use. … Thus, when we so use it in the sentence, 'This is good,' we merely refer to this, and the addition of "is good" makes no difference whatever to our reference … it serves only as an emotive sign expressing our attitude to this, and perhaps evoking similar attitudes in other persons, or inciting them to actions of one kind or another." This quote appears in an extended form just before the preface of Stevenson's Ethics and Language.
  3. ^ Pepper, Ethics, 277: "[Emotivism] was stated in its simplest and most striking form by A. J. Ayer."
  4. ^ Brandt, Ethical Theory, 239, calls Stevenson's Ethics and Language "the most important statement of the emotive theory", and Pepper, Ethics, 288, says it "was the first really systematic development of the value judgment theory and will probably go down in the history of ethics as the most representative for this school."
  5. ^ Brandt, Ethical Theory, 221: "A recent book [The Language of Morals] by R. M. Hare has proposed a view, otherwise very similar to the emotive theory, with modifications …"
  6. ^ Wilks, Emotion, 79: "… while Hare was, no doubt, a critic of the [emotive theory], he was, in the eyes of his own critics, a kind of emotivist himself. His theory, as a consequence, has sometimes been depicted as a reaction against emotivism and at other times as an extension of it."

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