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Eduard Bernstein (lahir di Schöneberg, Jerman, 6 Januari 1850 – meninggal di Berlin, Jerman, 18 Desember 1932 pada umur 82 tahun) adalah seorang pakar teori politik dan politikus demokrasi sosial Jerman, anggota dari Partai Sosial Demokrat (PSD), dan pendiri sosialisme evolusioner, demokrasi sosial, dan revisionisme. Bernstein memiliki hubungan dekat dengan Karl Marx dan Friedrich Engels, tetapi ia menepis pemikiran Marxis dan mulai mengkritik pandangan yang dibuat oleh Marxisme saat ia menyelidiki dan menantang teori sejarah materialis Marxis.[1] Ia menolak bagian-bagian signifikan dari teori Marxis yang berdasarkan pada metafisika Hegelian; ia menyangkal sudut pandang dialektikal Hegelian.[2]

Eduard Bernstein
Bernstein Eduard 1895.jpg
Lahir(1850-01-06)6 Januari 1850
Schöneberg, Jerman
Meninggal18 Desember 1932(1932-12-18) (umur 82)
Berlin, Jerman
KebangsaanJerman
PekerjaanPolitikus
Dikenal atasPendiri sosialisme evolusioner (sosialisme demokrat), demokrasi sosial dan revisionisme (reformisme)

Daftar pustakaSunting

  • Eduard Bernstein, The Preconditions of Socialism, J. H. W. Dietz, Stuttgart 1899, reprinting: Cambridge University Press, 1993
  • Eduard Bernstein, Cromwell and Communism: Socialism and Democracy in the Great English Revolution, International Specialized Book Service Inc, 1963, hardcover, ISBN 0-7146-1454-8; trade paperback, Spokesman Books, 1980, ISBN 0-85124-286-3; trade paperback, 287 pages, Coronet Books, 2000, ISBN 0-85124-630-3
  • Eduard Bernstein, Evolutionary Socialism: A Criticism and Affirmation, Random House, 1961, trade paperback, ISBN 0-8052-0011-8; trade paperback, ISBN 1-299-16172-3 online
  • Eduard Bernstein, My Years of Exile: Reminiscences of a Socialist, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986, hardcover, ISBN 0-313-25114-2
  • Eduard Bernstein, Selected Writings of Eduard Bernstein, 1900–1921, Prometheus Books, 1996, hardcover, ISBN 1-57392-357-5

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Berman, Sheri. Social Democracy and the Making of Europe's Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. 38–39.
  2. ^ Michael Harrington. Socialism: Past and Future. Reprint edition of original published in 1989. New York, New York, USA: Arcade Publishing, 2011. P. 251.

Bacaan tambahanSunting

  • Gay, Peter, The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Eduard Bernstein's challenge to Marx (1952), Octagon Books, ISBN 0-88254-837-9; Collier Books, ISBN 0-374-93017-1 online
  • Hamilton, Richard F. Marxism, Revisionism, and Leninism: Explication, Assessment, and Commentary (Greenwood, 2000) online
  • Hulse, James W. Revolutionists in London: a study of five unorthodox Socialists, Clarendon Press, 1970, ISBN 0-19-827175-1
  • Ramaswamy, S. and Subrata Mukherjee, Eduard Bernstein - His Thoughts and Works: His Life and Works, Deep & Deep Publications, 1998, hardcover, ISBN 81-7100-768-6
  • Steger, Manfred B. Quest for Evolutionary Socialism: Eduard Bernstein and Social Democracy, Cambridge University Press, 1997, hardcover, 287 pages, ISBN 0-521-58200-8
  • Thomas, Paul. Marxism & Scientific Socialism: From Engels to Althusser (Routledge, 2008)

Sumber primerSunting

  • Tudor, Henry Tudor and J. M. Tudor, eds. Marxism and Social Democracy: The Revisionist Debate, 1896–1898, Cambridge University Press, 1988, hardcover, 1988, ISBN 0-521-34049-7

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