Direktori atau Direktorat (bahasa Prancis: le Directoire) adalah sebuah komite lima anggota yang memerintah Prancis dari 2 November 1795, saat komite tersebut menggantikan Komite Keamanan Masyarakat, sampai 9 November 1799, saat komite tersebut digulingkan oleh Napoleon Bonaparte dalam Kudeta 18 Brumaire, dan digantikan dengan Konsulat Prancis. Komite tersebut memakai nama tersebut pada empat tahun terakhir dari Revolusi Prancis.

Direktori Prancis

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Referensi sunting

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  • Black, Jeremy (2002). From Louis XIV to Napoleon: The Fate of a Great Power. Routledge. ISBN 9780203006382. 
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "French Revolution, The". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. ; excerpts are included in this article
  • Church, Clive H., The Social Basis of the French Central Bureaucracy under the Directory 1795–1799, in Past & Present No. 36, April 1967, pp. 59–72 in JSTOR.
  • Doyle, William (1990). The Oxford History of the French Revolution  (edisi ke-2). Oxford University Press. hlm. 318–40. ISBN 9780199252985. 
  • Fierro, Alfred (1996). Histoire et dictionnaire de Paris. Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-07862-4. 
  • Furet, François (1996). The French Revolution, 1770–1814: 1770–1814. France: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-631-20299-8. 
  • Garrioch, David (2015). La fabrique du Paris révolutionnaire. La Découverte/Poche. ISBN 978-2-7071-8534-1. 
  • de Goncourt, Edmond and Jules (1864). Histoire de la société française pendant le Directoire. Ernest Flammarion. 
  • Goodwin, A., The French Executive Directory—A Revaluation, in History, 1937, 22.87 pp. 201–218; more favorable than most historians.
  • Gottschalk, Louis R., The Era of the French Revolution (1715–1815), Houghton Mifflin Company, 1929, pp. 280–306.
  • Héron de Villefosse, René (1959). HIstoire de Paris. Bernard Grasset. 
  • Hunt, Lynn, David Lansky and Paul Hanson, The Failure of the Liberal Republic in France, 1795–1799: The Road to Brumaire, in Journal of Modern History (1979) 51#4, pp. 734–759 in JSTOR; statistical profile of the different factions.
  • Jainchill, Andrew, The Constitution of the Year III and the Persistence of Classical Republicanism, in French Historical Studies, 2003, 26#3 pp, 399–435.
  • Lefebvre, Georges (1977). La France Sous Le Directoire (1795–1799) (dalam bahasa French). Éditions Sociales. 
  • Lefebvre, Georges, French Revolution from 1793–1799, Columbia University, 1964, pp. 171–211.
  • Lefebvre, Georges; Soboul, Albert (1965). The Directory. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. OCLC 668426465. 
  • Lyon, E. Wilson, The Directory and the United States, in American Historical Review, 1938, 43#3, pp. 514–532. in JSTOR.
  • Lyons, Martyn. France under the Directory, Cambridge University Press, 1975. excerpt and text search, in The standard scholarly history.
  • Palmer, Robert R, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800, vol 2: The Struggle, 1964, pp. 211–62, 549–76.
  • Ross, Steven T, The Military Strategy of the Directory: The Campaigns of 1799, in French Historical Studies, 1967, 5#2 pp. 170–187 in JSTOR.
  • Rudé, George (1988). The French Revolution. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 978-0802132727. 
  • Soboul, Albert (1975). 'The French Revolution, 1787–1799: From the storming of the Bastille to Napoleon. hlm. 477–547. 
  • Sutherland, D.M.G., The French Revolution and Empire: The Quest for a Civic Order, 2nd ed. 2003, 430 pages, excerpts and text search pp. 263–301.
  • Tulard, Jean; Fayard, Jean-François; Fierro, Alfred (1998). Histoire et Dictionnaire de la Révolution Française (dalam bahasa French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-08850-0. 
  • Woronoff, Denis, Thermidorean Regime & the Directory, 1794–1799, Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, Paris, 1984, 215 pages.

Sumber primer sunting

  • Stewart, John Hall, ed. A Documentary Survey of the French Revolution (1951), pp 654–766.