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Daftar pengatur bahasa

Halaman disambiguasi (jangan diutak-atik)

Halaman ini berisi sebuah daftar badan-badan yang mengatur bahasa baku dari suatu bahasa, biasanya badan tersebut disebut Akademi Bahasa. Akademi / Badan Bahasa tersebut didorong atau berhubungan dekat dengan Purisme bahasa, dan biasanya menerbitkan Kamus,[1] yang maksudnya adalah untuk menjelaskan apakah keresmian sebuah kata, serta menjelaskan makna dan pelafalan kata. Sebuah pengatur bahasa juga dapat menjelaskan ejaan resmi dan menjaga, bukan memaksakan sebuah ejaan misalnya.

Daftar isi

Bahasa AlamiSunting

Bahasa Wilayah Pengatur
Afrikaans   Afrika Selatan Die Taalkommissie
Akan   Ghana Komite Ortografi Akan
Albania   Albania Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Albania, Tirana
Arab   Aljazair
  Suriah
  Mesir
  Yordania
  Maroko
  Irak
  Tunisia
  Sudan
  Israel
  Somalia
Akademi Bahasa Arab; Aljazair, Suriah, Mesir, Somalia, Yordania, Maroko, Irak, Tunisia, Sudan, Israel
Majelis Internasional Bahasa Arab
Aragon   Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spanyol
Armenia   Armenia Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Armenia
Assam   Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturia   Asturias Akademi bahasa Asturia (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azeri   Azerbaijan Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Azerbaijan
Bengali   Bangladesh Akademi Bangla (বাংলা একাডেমী)
  Benggala Barat Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Basque   País Vasco Euskaltzaindia, seringkali diterjemahkan sebagai Akademi Kerajaan Bahasa Basque
Belarus   Belarus Institut Bahasa dan Literatur Jakub Kolas dan Janka Kupala[2] di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Belarus
Berber atau Tamazight   Maroko Institut Kerajaan Kebudayaan Amazight (IRCAM)
  Aljazair HCA
Bulgaria   Bulgaria Institut Bahasa Bulgaria di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Bulgaria
Myanmar   Myanmar Komisi Bahasa Myanmar
Catalan   Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
  Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano   Filipina Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters
Mandarin Chinese   Republik Rakyat Tiongkok State Language and Letters Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
  Republik Tiongkok (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
  Singapura Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
  Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish Templat:Country data Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian   Kroasia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Czech   Republik Ceko Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) — Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky)
Danish   Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian   Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari   Afganistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi   Maladewa Dhivehi Academy
Dutch   Belanda
  Belgia
  Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha   Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission
Estonian   Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese   Kepulauan Faroe Faroese Language Board (Føroyska málnevndin)
Filipino   Filipina Commission on the Filipino Language
Finnish   Finlandia Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French   Perancis Académie française (French Academy)
  Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician   Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega, official)
German   Jerman
  Austria
   Swiss
Templat:Country data South Tyrol
  Belgium
  Liechtenstein
  Luxembourg
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenland   Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek   Greece
  Cyprus
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Haitian Creole   Haiti Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle (Haitian department of education)[butuh rujukan]
Hebrew   Israel The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi   India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar   India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[butuh rujukan]
Hungarian   Hongaria Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic   Islandia Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo   Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian   Indonesia Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Irish   Republik Irlandia
  Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian   Italia
Templat:RSM
   Swiss
  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese   Jepang No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada   Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian   Polandia Commission of the Kashubian Language (Radzëzna Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka[pranala nonaktif])
Kazakh   Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Korean   Korea Selatan The National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원)
Kven   Norwegia Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz   Kirgizstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Ladino   Israel Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (National Authority of Ladino) [2]
Latin   Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (Latin in the Roman Catholic Church)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian   Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian   Lituania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga   Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian   Makedonia Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик „Крсте Мисирков“, Institut za makedonski jazik „Krste Misirkov“)
Malay   Malaysia
  Brunei
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Malayalam   Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese   Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx   Pulau Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori   Selandia Baru Māori Language Commission
Mirandese   Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec   Meksiko Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Mongolian   Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Nepali     Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)   Norwegia Norwegian Language Council
Occitan   Perancis
  Spanyol
   Monako
  Italia
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[3]
Pashto   Afganistan
  Pakistan
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy
Persian   Iran
  Tajikistan
  Afganistan
  Uzbekistan
Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Polish   Polandia Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)
Portuguese   Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
  Brasil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
Quechua   Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian   Rumania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
  Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian   Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
  Rusia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots   Skotlandia The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[6]
Scottish Gaelic   Skotlandia Bòrd na Gàidhlig maintains the national plan for Gaelic, to promote its use and make Gaelic culture accessible
Secwepemctsín   Kanada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin   Serbia
  Montenegro
  (  B & H)
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi   Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [4]
Sinhala   Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak   Slowakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene   Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali   Somalia Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education
Sorbian   Jerman Serbski institut [5]
Spanish   Spain
  Colombia
  Ecuador
  Mexico
  El Salvador
  Venezuela
  Chile
  Peru
  Guatemala
  Costa Rica
  Filipina
  Panama
  Cuba
  Paraguay
  Dominican Republic
  Bolivia
  Nicaragua
  Argentina
  Uruguay
  Honduras
  Puerto Rico
  United States
Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 21 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world)
Swahili   Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
  Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish   Swedia Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
  Finlandia Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil   Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
Tatar   Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu   Andhra Pradesh Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum   Timor Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai   Thailand Royal Institute of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน)
Turkish   Turki Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian   Ukraina National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Urdu   Pakistan
  India
National Language Authority, Pakistan
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo language   Nigeria [Urhobo Studies Association]
Võro   Estonia Võro Institute
Waray-Waray   Filipina Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh   Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian   Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof   Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish   United States
  Swedia
  Rusia
YIVO [6]
Yoruba   Nigeria The Yoruba Academy

Bahasa PembantuSunting

InterlinguaSunting

Interlingua tidak memiliki sebuah badan pengatur, karena kosakata, tatabahasa, dan ortografinya dipandang sebagai sebuah produk dari kekuatan sosial yang sedang berlangsung. Karena itulah Interlingua berkembang secara bebas dari pengatur apapun. Kosakata Interlingua telah diperiksa dan didata secara dinamis dan menerapkan prinsip-prinsip umum tertentu untuk sebuah bahasa alami dan etimologinya.

Bahasa BuatanSunting

Bahasa-bahasa seperti Esperanto dan Ido telah dibuat atau dicanangkan oleh seseorang atau sebuah kelompok, sebelum diadopsi dan dikembangkan oleh komunitas pengguna. Badan-badan seperti Akademio de Esperanto melihat pertanyaan akan penggunaan ringan akan tujuan dan dasar asli bahasa tersebut.

Bahasa Pengatur
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Klingon Marc Okrand
Lojban Logical Language Group
Talossa Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Lihat pulaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca, ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets like Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks – as with so many academies to follow – was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Diakses tanggal 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ... 
  3. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis - Index". Vatican.va. 2012-11-10. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ [1][pranala nonaktif]
  5. ^ Scots language Centre
  6. ^ Scottish Language Dictionaries