Biker metal

genre fusion yang menggabungkan unsur heavy metal, acid rock, hard rock, garage rock dan electric blues

Biker metal (juga dikenal sebagai biker punk)[1] adalah genre campuran yang menggabungkan unsur-unsur punk rock, heavy metal, rock and roll dan blues, yang dirintis pada akhir 1970-an hingga awal 1980-an di Inggris dan Amerika Serikat, oleh Motorhead , Plasmatics, Anti-Nowhere League dan Girlschool.

KarakteristikSunting

Biker metal telah digambarkan dipengaruhi oleh punk rock, rock and roll, heavy metal[2][3] dan blues.[4] Sleazegrinder, seorang penulis di Classic Rock, menggambarkan biker metal sebagai "glam metal yang menjadi Mad Max".[5]

Biker metal dicirikan oleh pendekatan tempo menengahnya terhadap metal, suaranya yang "terasa berpasir dan Amerika", dan keselarasannya dengan budaya pengendara sepeda motor secara keseluruhan.[6] Genre ini telah dikontraskan dengan bentuk metal yang lebih lambat dan lebih opera, seperti karya Judas Priest di awal 2000-an.[7] Demikian pula, biker metal menghindari kecepatan dan keahlian yang menjadi terkenal di tahun 1980-an.[8]

Grup musik seperti Black Moth, Orange Goblin, The Obsessed, Earthride, dan Black Label Society telah digambarkan memadukan gaya dengan doom metal,[9][10][11][12][13] sedangkan Clutch digambarkan sebagai penggabungan elemen biker metal dan rok Selatan ke dalam suara stoner rock mereka.[14] Lagu Black Sabbath "Paranoid" telah dianggap sebagai genre klasik.[15][16]

Biker metal telah terbukti berpengaruh pada genre mulai dari speed metal hingga hardcore punk dan crust punk, dan merupakan bagian integral dari perkembangan metal ekstrim.[2][1] Giuseppe Sbrana dari grup musik heavy metal Botswanan Skinflint telah menyatakan bahwa grup musik biker metal sangat berpengaruh pada estetika grup musik heavy metal Afrika.[17]

TerminologiSunting

Asosiasi dengan budaya biker telah hadir untuk sebagian besar seumur hidup heavy metal dan punk rock: Thin Lizzy sering difoto dengan sepeda motor membentang sejauh tahun 1973; Joan Jett muncul di sampul Outlaw Biker Magazine; Judas Priest menggunakan citra pengendara motor yang dimulai pada pertengahan 1970-an, namun juga banyak meminjam dari sadomasokisme;[18][19][20] dan gaya berpakaian metalhead yang umum terkait erat dengan gaya berpakaian geng motor.[21] Spin memuji vokalis Motorhead Lemmy sebagai yang pertama membawa budaya sepeda motor ke punk rock dan heavy metal, kemungkinan melalui pengaruh grup musik rok sebelumnya seperti Steppenwolf, Lynyrd Skynyrd dan Grateful Dead.[20] Penggunaan awal istilah "heavy metal" bahkan hadir dalam lagu Steppenwolf tahun 1968 "Born to Be Wild", mengacu pada sepeda motor.[22]

Lihat jugaSunting

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ a b Smith, E.R. Extreme Metal: The Story of Punk and Metal's Interwoven History. 
  2. ^ a b Popoff, Martin (2017). Speed Metal. 
  3. ^ Gaines, Donna. Teenage Wasteland: Suburbia's Dead End Kids. hlm. 191. 
  4. ^ WIEDERHORN, JON (24 March 2017). "39 years ago: Motorhead paved the way for Thrash with second album 'overkill'". Loudwire. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. With their 1977 self-titled debut, Motörhead opened the floodgates for a new style of bluesy, bombastic biker metal, but two years later, on March 24, 1979, they rewrote the rule book altogether with the more urgent, combustive Overkill. 
  5. ^ Grinder, Sleaze (7 March 2016). "Flash Metal Suicide: Steve Jones". Classic Rock. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. So naturally, Jones wanted to keep the motor revving. And as we rolled into the last gasp of the 80s, biker metal was where it was at. COP, Warrior Soul, Zodiac Mindwarp, Spread Eagle, Horse London, Two Bit Thief, The Cult, Four Horsemen, I mean, everybody had long hair and dangling earrings and black biker boots and snorted whiskey and guzzled gasoline in '89. Biker metal was glam metal gone Mad Max, basically, and 1989 was truly the Year of Manly Living. 
  6. ^ Epstein, Dan; Bienstock, Richard; Shteamer, Hank; Krovatin, Christopher; Grow, Cory; Hudak, Joseph (29 December 2015). "Motorhead's Lemmy: 20 Essential Songs". Rolling Stone. Diakses tanggal 3 July 2019. A herald of the laid-back biker metal of the band's latter years, "Born to Raise Hell" is a Motörhead classic lacking any pretense. 
  7. ^ McIver, Joel (2008). The 100 Greatest Metal Guitarists. hlm. 120. ISBN 9781906002206. 
  8. ^ McIver, Joel (2009). To Live is to Die: The Life and Death of Metallica's Cliff Burton. Jawbone Press. hlm. 85. ISBN 9781906002244. 
  9. ^ Bienstock, Richard. "25 Most Anticipated Metal Albums of 2016". Rolling Stone. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. Former Ozzy Osbourne guitar man Zakk Wylde spends most of his time these days churning out doomy biker metal with Black Label Society 
  10. ^ Dome, Malcolm. "Orange Goblin/Karma To Burn/Black Moth at Electric Ballroom, London live review". Classic Rock. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  11. ^ Kelly, Kim. "Live: A Week in Metal at SXSW". The Fader. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  12. ^ Law, Sam. "six things we learned at desertfest 2018". Kerrang!. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  13. ^ Yardley, Miranda. "BAND OF THE DAY: BIKER DOOM LORDS EARTHRIDE". Terrorizer. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  14. ^ McIntyre, Ken. "How Clutch threw out the rules and made metal music their own". Classic Rock. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. 
  15. ^ Bienstock, Richard (18 September 2018). "See type o negative's massive, melancholic live cover of Black Sabbath's "Paranoid"". Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. Seeing as Type O Negative are the band that brought heavy-metal doom to goth rock, it's no surprise that they were huge Sabbath fans. And while their best-known Sabbath cover is "Black Sabbath," from the original '94 Nativity in Black tribute album, a few years earlier (it was tacked on as a bonus cut to 1992's "live" album The Origin of the Feces) they took on the Sab's biker-metal classic "Paranoid," turning into a very Type O–esque dirge. 
  16. ^ Bienstock, Richard (11 February 2016). "10 Epic Live Black Sabbath Covers". Guitar World. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. And while their best-known Sabbath cover is "Black Sabbath," from the original '94 'Nativity in Black' tribute album, a few years earlier (it was tacked on as a bonus cut to 1992's "live" album 'The Origin of the Feces') they took on the Sab's biker metal classic "Paranoid," turning into a very Type O-esque dirge. 
  17. ^ Marshall, Frank (31 March 2011). "Botswana's Cowboy Metalheads". Vice Media. Diakses tanggal 23 September 2018. Also many metalheads in Botswana are cowboys from the villages and farms, so they mix the cowboy image with a biker metal look 
  18. ^ Cope, Andrew L. (115). Black Sabbath and the Rise of Heavy Metal Music. Routledge. 
  19. ^ Bayer, Gerd. Heavy Metal Music in Britain. hlm. 136. 
  20. ^ a b Gaines, Donna. "Biker Metal". Spin. 
  21. ^ Clifford-Napoleone, Amber R. Queerness in Heavy Metal Music: Metal Bent. hlm. 33. 
  22. ^ Broadus Browne, Ray; Browne, Pat. The Guide to United States Popular Culture. hlm. 373.