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Atonalitas dalam pengartian terluasnya adalah musik yang kurang nada utama, atau kunci. Dalam pengartian ini, atonalitas biasanya ditujukan kepada komposisi-komposisi yang dibuat dari sekitar tahun 1908 sampai saat ini, dimana sejumlah karya berfokus pada sebuah irama yang tak memakai nada utama.

Para komponis akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 seperti Alexander Scriabin, Claude Debussy, Béla Bartók, Paul Hindemith, Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, dan Edgard Varèse menulis musik yang dikatakan bersifat atonal, baik secara keseluruhan atau sebagian (Baker 1980; Baker 1986; Bertram 2000; Griffiths 2001; Kohlhase 1983; Lansky and Perle 2001; Obert 2004; Orvis 1974; Parks 1985; Rülke 2000; Teboul 1995–96; Zimmerman 2002).

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