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Agresi relasional atau agresi alternatif[1] adalah sebuah jenis dari agresi dimana pencederaan disebabkan oleh kerusakan hubungan seseorang atau status sosial.[2][3] Meskipun ini dapat dipakai dalam beberapa konteks dan kelompok usia berbeda, agresi relasional di kalangan remaja adalah yang paling umum dan meraih perhatian.

Agresi relasional telah memperoleh perhatian khalayak luas berkat bantuan media populer, yang meliputi film-film seperti Mean Girls dan buku-buku seperti Odd Girl Out karya R. Simmons (2003), Nesthäkchen and the World War karya Else Ury (1916), dan Queen Bees and Wannabes karya R. Wiseman (2003). Agresi relasional dapat memiliki dampak seumur hidup. Agresi relasional biasanya diamati dan dikaji di kalangan perempuan, setelah diadakannya penelitian yang dipelopori oleh psikolog Nicki R. Crick.[3]

ReferensiSunting

  1. ^ Simmons, Rachel (2002). Odd Girl Out: The Hidden Culture of Aggression in Girls. New York, New York: Mariner Books. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0547520190. Retrieved 2016-11-02.
  2. ^ McGrath, Mary Zabolio (2006). School Bullying: Tools for Avoiding Harm and Liability. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press. p. 21. ISBN 1-4129-1571-6. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  3. ^ a b Marion K. Underwood (2003). Social Aggression among Girls (Guilford Series On Social And Emotional Development) . New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-865-6. Retrieved 2008-09-04

Bacaan tambahanSunting

BukuSunting

  • Kupkovits, Jamie, Relational Aggression in Girls (2008)
  • Randall, Kaye & Bowen, Allyson A., Mean Girls: 101​12 Creative Strategies for Working With Relational Aggression (2007)

Artikel akademikSunting

  • Carpenter, E.M. & Nangle, D.W. (2006). "Caught between stages: Relational aggression emerging as a developmental advance in at-risk preschoolers." Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21, 177–188.
  • Casas, J.F., Weigel, S.M., Crick, N.R., Ostrov, J.M., Woods, K.E., Jansen Yeh, E.A., & Huddleston-Casas, C.A. (2006). "Early parenting and children's relational and physical aggression in the preschool and home contexts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27, 209–2227.
  • Coyne, S., Archer, J., & Eslea, M. (2006). "'We're not friends anymore! Unless...': The frequency and harmfulness of indirect, relational, and social aggression." Aggressive Behavior, 32, 294–307. DOI:10.1002/ab.20126
  • Crain, M.M., Finch, C.L., & Foster, S.L. (2005). "The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 51, 213–242.
  • Crick, N.R., & Grotpeter, J.K. (1995). "Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment." Child Development, 66(3), 710–722. (ERIC Journal No. EJ503787)
  • Crick, N.R. (1996). "The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children's future social adjustment." Child Development, 67(5), 2317–2327. (ERIC Journal No. EJ539853)
  • Crick, N.R., Casas, J.F., & Mosher, M. (1997). "Relational and overt aggression in preschool." Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 579–588. (ERIC Journal No. EJ549585)
  • Crick, N.R., Ostrov, J.M., & Werner, N.E. (2006). "A longitudinal study of relational aggression, physical aggression and children's social-psychological adjustment." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 131–142.
  • Crick, N.R., & Werner, N.E. (1998). "Response decision processes in relational and overt aggression." Child Development, 69, 1630–1639. DOI:10.2307/1132136
  • Grotpeter, J.K., & Crick, N.R. (1996). "Relational aggression, overt aggression, and friendship." Child Development, 67, 2328–2338. DOI:10.2307/1131626
  • Ostrov, J.M. Crick, N.R. Stauffacher, K. (2006). "Relational aggression in sibling and peer relationships during early childhood." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
  • Stauffacher, K. & DeHart, G.B. "Crossing social contexts: Relational aggression between siblings and friends during early and middle childhood." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
  • Tomada, G., & Schneider, B.H. (1997). "Relational aggression, gender, and peer acceptance: Invariance across culture, stability over time, and concordance among informants." Developmental Psychology, 33, 601-609. DOI:10.1037/0012-1649.33.4.601

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